These crossbred commercial
calves at the Fort Keogh
Livestock and Range Research
Laboratory in Miles City,
Montana, are part of ARS'
research program for breeding
bulls with the most potential
for profitable offspring.
The story on page 12 of the
April 2003 issue of Agricultural
Research magazine reports
an industry application with
Angus cattle stemming from
For years, beef cattle producers have kept track of characteristics
of their animals to selectively breed them and improve specific traits,
such as growth rate, fat content, or marbling. Unfortunately, selectively
breeding to improve one characteristic can lead to undesirable correlated
responses, such as reproductive inefficiencies.
Now, geneticists Michael MacNeil, at ARS'
Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory in Miles City, Montana,
and William Herring, his industry collaborator, have helped producers
move beyond simply breeding to improve individual traits. The researchers
have set up a program that helps evaluate and rank animals based on
multiple traits and select those that have the potential to produce
the most profitable offspring.
In the beef cattle industry, breeders record growth traits
such as weights at birth, weaning, yearling, and maturity; carcass traits
such as lean yield, marbling, and fat content; and reproductive traits
such as the age when a female reaches puberty and whether she becomes
pregnant each year.
Geneticist Michael MacNeil
examines results from genetic
analysis of sires used in
the Angus Sire Alliance
program at Circle A Angus
Ranch. Economic values for
individual traits are used
to sort bulls by potential
profitability of their
offspring. These values
are products of ARS research
led by MacNeil.
Breed associations take this information, combine it with each animal's
genetic tree, and calculate expected progeny differences, or EPDs. The
EPDs give producers an estimate of how the future progeny of one animal
will compare to those of another animal within the breed, for a specific
trait. By comparing EPDs, for example, they would be able to determine
that bull A is more likely to produce offspring with greater marbling
than bull B.
Breeding for Profit: A Balancing Act
"Until now, producers have been left with the difficult task of
combining these EPDs efficiently," says Herring. "They have
had to decide whether growth rate is more important than marbling or
whether yield grade is more important than weaning weight."
But MacNeil has designed software that estimates the relative economic
value of each trait in a stereotypical production system. This information,
combined with an animal's EPD data, can be used to estimate that animal's
overall genetic profit potential.
Line 1 Hereford bulls
enjoy fresh silage on
a cold day. These bulls
will sire a future generation
of calves for seedstock and
commercial breeders nationwide.
Since 1996, Herring has worked with the Angus Sire Alliance and Circle
A Angus Ranch in Missouri to rank sires nominated by Angus breeders
throughout the United States by their genetic profit potential, using
relative economic values that he and MacNeil calculated.
Commercial Angus females at Circle A locations in Huntsville, Iberia,
and Stockton, Missouri, are randomly mated to Angus test candidates
and reference sires. Data on progeny are then collected, including their
birth weight, weaning weight, postweaning daily gain, daily dry-matter
intake, marbling score, and yield grade.
The researchers use MacNeil's bioeconomic modeling software to calculate
sire rankings. They have found that among the 352 sires tested so far,
there exists a range in profitability of $41.65. This means that if
the highest and lowest ranking bulls were used in a production system
similar to the one described in the economic simulation, a difference
in profitability of more than $40 per progeny would be expected.
This bull, called New
Design 9150, is one of
the top-ranked bulls for
producing profitable progeny
in the Angus Sire Alliance.
The high rating results from
a combination of traits,
including outstanding calving
ease and overall carcass merit.
MacNeil says, "There is no single trait that ensures a bull's
offspring will be highly profitable." For example, the marbling
rankings of the top five bulls overall range from 1 to 334, and their
rankings for yield grade range from 1 to 50. For the other traits, the
variability in rank is similar.
ABS Global Inc., based in De Forest, Wisconsin, has leased eight of
the top-rated bulls from the Angus Sire Alliance. Doug Frank, an ABS
manager, says, "We've been following the alliance since its inception
in 1996. We were intrigued by the way data on the animals was being
compiled and negotiated the right to lease the top two bulls every year.
Testing them takes about 2 years to complete."
In marketing the bulls, ABS publishes their overall profitability EPDs.
During an 18-month period between 2001 and 2002, the company sold 75,000
units of the bulls' semen, which was worth more than $1.5 million in
"The alliance bulls are popular because of their multitrait performance,"
says Frank. "Two of them have been among our top 10 bulls in terms
of semen sales."
Based on the results of this research, MacNeil believes that wide differences
exist in the profit potential of cattle. He says that producers should
be encouraged to use a more comprehensive and objective approach than
single-trait selection in choosing how to breed their animals. Bulls
that have a desirable balance of traits may, in the end, be much more
profitable than those that excel in just one or two traits.By
formerly with ARS.
This research is part of Food Animal Production, an ARS National
Program (#101) described on the World Wide Web at www.nps.ars.usda.gov.
Michael D. MacNeil
is with the USDA-ARS Fort
Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory, 243 Fort Keogh Rd.,
Miles City, MT 59301; phone (406) 232-8213, fax (406) 232-8209.
Precise Feed Measurement's a Useful Tool
During the fall of 1998, the Circle A Angus Ranch in Huntsville, Missouri,
installed a system that allows ranch managers to measure the daily individual
feed intake of steers. This system is similar to those in place at research
laboratories like ARS' Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory.
Twice a day, a computerized wagon doles out a precise amount of feed
into gated bins. Each steer is outfitted with a collar holding a computer
chip. When the steer approaches its assigned bin, the chip triggers
the gate to open so it can eat; the door closes when the steer walks
away. Later, the wagon vacuums up the leftovers and records these amounts.
While geneticist William Herring was working at the University of Florida's
North Florida Research and Education Center, the ranchers sent feed
intake data and other measurements to him for analysis. Herring measured
feed-conversion rates ranging from 4.3 to 8.9 pounds of dry matter intake
per pound of gain. Herring is now with NPD (USA) Smithfield Foods, in
Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina.
Geneticist Mike MacNeil, of the Fort Keogh laboratory, says, "Improving
feed efficiency could help ranchers increase their profits through reduced
input costs. This is clearly one of the traits that should be taken
into account in evaluating the genetic profit potential of bulls."
"Well-Rounded Bulls Bring Profit to Cattle Breeders"
was published in the April
2003 issue of Agricultural Research magazine.