Chemist Francis Nakayama
removes a sample of wood
impregnated with guayule
resin from a pressure
Termites and wood-rot microbes that make a meal of wooden beams, walls,
and floors may soon be outwitted by ARS
scientists and their USDA Forest Service and university colleagues.
The researchers have determined that combining components of the guayule
(why-YOU-lee) plant, a desert shrub, with plastic from recycled
soft drink or milk containers yields a composite material that repels
these tiny attackers.
The plastic acts as a binder in this durable and versatile composite,
says Francis S. Nakayama, a research chemist with ARS' U.S. Water Conservation
Laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona.
"The guayule composite can replace many kinds of wood that are
exposed toand susceptible tocostly insect and microbial
damage," Nakayama notes. "These include wood for floor, wall,
and roof construction in homes and commercial buildings."
Guayule is a hardy, drought-resistant native of the southwestern United
States and northern Mexico. Known to scientists as Parthenium argentatum,
the plant's silvery, grayish-green leaves and yellow flowers make it
resemble the more familiar sagebrush.
Nakayama displays board samples
exposed to termites in the
laboratory. The control sample
of untreated pinewood (left)
is badly damaged, but the
block made from guayule
and recycled plastic milk
containers is intact.
Scientists and growers alike are interested in making guayule a profitable
crop. That's because it yields high-quality latex, ideal for making
medical and personal products such as surgical gloves, catheters, and
Studies led by plant physiologist Katrina Cornish at ARS' Western Regional
Research Center in Albany, California, have shown that guayule latex
is hypoallergenic. In contrast, latex from the tropical rubber tree
Hevea brasiliensis can cause allergic reactions ranging from
discomforting rashes to life-threatening shock. Hevea is the
world's predominant natural latex source, but it contains more than
five dozen allergy-causing proteins. Hypoallergenic guayule latex should
soon provide an excellent alternative for the estimated 20 million Americans
allergic to Hevea latex.
But production of hypoallergenic guayule latex will yield huge amounts
of leftover plant material. For every acre of guayule processed for
latex, 20,000 to 50,000 problematic pounds of leftovers, called bagasse,
are produced. Bagasse is the brownish-white slurry that remains after
guayule stems and leaves are ground up and their latex removed. "Bonding
the bagasse with recycled plastic to make a guayule composite would
be an ideal use of the leftovers," Nakayama says.
Technician Steve Vinyard
pours guayule resin into
a pressure treatment chamber
that impregnates wood
with the termite-repelling
Guayule Boards Formed
For experiments to make and test guayule-composite particleboard, Nakayama
sent air-dried guayule bagasse to colleague John A. Youngquist at Madison,
Wisconsin. Youngquist, now retired, was a chemical engineer with the
Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory there.
From the dried guayule bagasse, Youngquist produced three prototype
particleboards. One was formed from dried bagasse alone. A second was
made of dried bagasse mixed with phenol formaldehyde, or PF, a binder
or adhesive compound for making conventional particleboard. The third
test particleboard was made from dried bagasse plus recycled high-density
polyethylene, or HDPE, from melted-down milk containers. All these prototypes
were shaped into panels of various commercial thicknesses with a steam-heated
platen press. Using the same press, the boards were next exposed to
730 pounds per square inch of pressure at 350 °F.
Guayule Boards vs. Termites and Rot
Colleague Poo Chow, professor of wood science with the University of
Illinois, Urbana, tested the guayule prototypes for resistance to attack
by hungry termites and destructive wood-rot microbes. In the United
States alone, termites and wood rot cause an estimated $7 billion worth
of damage every year.
Chow used the methods and standards set for testing conventional wood
products. To evaluate termite resistance, Chow and co-researchers placed
small sections of each board in jars containing 400 Eastern subterranean
termites, Reticulitermes flavipes. This species is one of the
most damaging termites in the United States. After a week, the scientists
counted the number of surviving termites.
In the decay-resistance experiments, the researchers exposed pieces
of the guayule boards to two common brown rot fungi, Gloeophyllum
trabeum and Poria placenta. After 65 to 80 days, scientists
looked for two signs of microbial damage: a decrease in weight and an
increase of thickness of the guayule boards.
In both types of tests, the HDPE board outperformed the PF board as
well as the board made without plastics, according to Chow. "These
results," says Nakayama, "suggest that the HDPE board is a
promising substitute for conventional particleboard."
Guayule Resins Protect Wood
The scientists also scrutinized a second type of product from guayule
bagasse, a mixture known as resin. Their studies are an outgrowth of
discoveries made in the 1990s by John D. Bultman of the U.S. Naval Research
Laboratory in Washington, DC. Bultman's analysis of dozens of compounds
for protecting wooden piers revealed that wood treated with guayule
resin is resistant to attacks by several types of termites and marine
Nakayama used acetone, a solvent, to extract the resin from guayule
bagasse. He applied various amounts of resin to small blocks of Southern
yellow pine that he had placed in a pressurized chamber. This wood is
normally vulnerable to both termites and wood rot. The amount of resin
in the wood blocks ranged from 0 to 97 percent.
Next, Chow put the blocks through the same termite and wood-rot resistance
tests as the guayule particleboards. He found that the wood had to contain
at least 50 percent resin in order to resist termite and wood-rot attack.
Says Nakayama, "The guayule resin, when properly incorporated into
wood, may be an effective natural preservative for wooden buildings,
boats, decks, and outdoor furniture."By Marcia
Wood, Agricultural Research Service Information Staff.
This research is part of Quality and Utilization of Agricultural
Products (#306) and Plant, Microbial, and Insect Genetics Resources,
Genomics, and Genetic Improvement (#301), two ARS National Programs
described on the World Wide Web at http://www.nps.ars.usda.gov.
For information about U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 09/828,634,
Composites Comprising Plant Material from Parthenium spp. and
Plastics, contact Francis
S. Nakayama, USDA-ARS Environmental
and Plant Dynamics Research Unit, U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory,
4331 E. Broadway Rd., Phoenix, AZ 85040; phone (602) 437-1702, ext.
255, fax (602) 437-5291.