|ARS Annual Performance Report for FY 2005|
1 - Introduction
2 - Table of Contents
3 - Goals 1 and 2
4 - Goal 3
5 - Goal 4
6 - Goal 5
7 - Goal 6
GOAL 3: ENHANCE PROTECTION AND SAFETY OF THE NATION’S AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SUPPLY
Analysis of Results: This goal is related to food safety and the security of the
OBJECTIVE 3.1: Provide Science-Based Knowledge on the Safe Production, Storage, Processing, and Handling of Plant and Animal Products and on the Detection and Control of Toxin-Producing and/or Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi Parasites, Mycotoxins, Chemical Residues, and Plant Toxins So As To Assist Regulatory Agencies and the Food Industry in Reducing the Incidence of Foodborne Illnesses.
During 2005, ARS will
using new detection and quantitation methodologies, including genomic technologies, and through the study of epidemiology, ecology and host pathogen relationships, intervention strategies, and antibiotic resistance in food producing animals, develop practices, products, and information that will reduce preharvest pathogen and toxic residue contamination of animal-derived food products. ARS will also ensure that these technologies can be utilized by regulatory agencies and/or producers to help assure safe food products.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Shiga toxin producing E. coli O157:H7 were isolated from various fair environments following human outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7. Scientists at Clay Center, Nebraska, collaborated with two State Departments of Agriculture and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in the investigation of these human outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 at fairs and petting zoos in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This information developed by ARS was used for CDC recommendations to help keep petting zoo and fair sites safe for visitors, and particularly for very young children.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Engulfment of bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella typhinurium DT104, by rumen protozoa in cattle, increases their virulence. Easily available and effective substances are needed to kill the protozoa in order to increase both animal productivity and food safety. Scientists in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Use of these plant extracts which kill protozoa could greatly reduce the incidence and shedding of Salmonella and other pathogens at critical time points in the production of both beef and dairy cattle.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Campylobacter contamination is a serious food safety issue and optimum production practices are needed to reduce the incidence in live poultry. Scientists at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This information demonstrating that high humidity enhances the transmission of Campylobacter jejuni could lead to practical applications in production practices to help reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers.
using new detection and quantitation methodologies, including genomic technologies, and through the study of crop/fungal/toxin relationships, production practices and expert systems, breeding targets for resistant crops, biocontrol technologies, and chemical toxicity, develop practices, products, and information that will reduce preharvest fungal/toxin contamination of plant-derived food products. ARS will also ensure that these technologies can be utilized by regulatory agencies and/or producers to help assure safe food products.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: New sources of genes that bring about aflatoxin resistance in corn are needed. Insect damage and their associated ear mold toxins cause hundreds of millions of dollars in losses each year. Thus, incorporation of new insect resistance genes into corn could reduce mycotoxins. Scientists in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Incorporation of these genes into corn through multigenic transgenic means could result in reduced levels of mycotoxins, thus increasing both the safety and the exportability of
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Genes encoding many different aspects of corn physiology must be identified and introduced for use in selective breeding of aflatoxin resistant corn. Scientists in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This progress could lead to an official release in the next 2 to 5 years of these resistant lines which also will have superior agronomic performance.
During FY 2005, ARS will
develop innovative methods and advanced technology systems that: rapidly and accurately detect, identify, and differentiate the most critical and economically important foodborne contaminants, such as bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens; drug and chemical residues; and pathophysiological and processing surface contamination. ARS will also ensure that the technologies are transferred to the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); the Department of Homeland Security; and industry for implementation into Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programs, and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) protocols for both large and small producers and processors.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: At the request of the FSIS, ARS scientists at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: FSIS is concerned that consumers cook meat products to safe end point temperatures before consumption. As a result of this research, FSIS will revise their food safety information on consumer use of instant-read-thermometers to further reduce the potential for foodborne illnesses.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Efficient methods are needed by regulatory agencies to detect pesticide residues in foods to ensure their safety for the consumer. However, a serious issue is the cost of maintaining the testing equipment to ensure it is in optimal condition for use. Such costs are often prohibitive for routine testing laboratories. Scientists at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Regulatory agencies, such as FSIS, that implement this approach will benefit considerably through significant cost savings and ease of use, and by improved detection efficiency.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists at various locations took the lead in developing new and better technologies that have regulatory, industry, and research use. A variety of new, improved and innovative methods were developed to detect, differentiate, type, and quantify numerous foodborne pathogens. For example: scientists at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Technologies were transferred to the end users, mainly FSIS, FDA, CDC, and DHS who work with ARS to refine them for (automated) day-to-day use. Methods for virus detection will find extended use since they are a problem in water and foods such as shellfish, and are commonly associated with outbreaks on cruise ships and Navy vessels, and among troops particularly in Operation Desert Storm.
determine the microbial ecology and transmission of human pathogens during animal, plant, and seafood (shellfish) processing, and identify the critical control points to reduce contamination. Develop innovative postharvest intervention strategies for improving the microbial and chemical safety of foods while reducing the impact on quality and consumer acceptance. ARS will also ensure that these technologies can be implemented into HACCP and GMP protocols and have efficacy for approval by FSIS and FDA.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Shell eggs are required to be cleaned/washed before packaging and marketing. The current Federal guideline in the
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The research indicated that washing with cooler water enhanced the product quality. It also was more cost effective for the typical shell egg washing company to maintain the cooler wash water temperature during processing. A commercial transfer study was conducted in two separate shell egg processing facilities showing the efficacy of the processing change.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Outbreaks of foodborne illness due to consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produce, especially cantaloupe, contaminated with bacterial pathogens continues to be a concern to regulatory agencies and industry. This research will directly assist the FDA in developing good agricultural practices and good manufacturing practices, and developing a Guide to Minimize Microbial Safety Hazards for Fruit and Vegetables for industry.
undertake genomic and proteomic analyses of pathogens affecting food safety. ARS will also develop bioinformatic databases and tools, and predictive user-friendly models to understand pathogen behavior and acquisition of virulence characteristics under various stress conditions. In addition, the Agency will determine the key risk factors of human pathogens in foods, and evaluate systems interventions for their impact, which will allow regulatory/action agencies to make critical food safety decisions that impact public health and food security.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Genetic sequencing and annotation of microbial genomes yields fundamental information about the organism and is critical for definitive knowledge about pathogens. ARS scientists from
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The availability of new genetic information increases our understanding of why a bacterium can make you sick (pathogenicity and virulence), and how it can survive and grow in foods even under stressed conditions. The information facilitates the development of better and more rapid detection technologies so that the human illnesses can be attributed to a particular food source. Such research also increases our understanding of the epidemiology of outbreaks of foodborne illness, and furthers the development of data for risk assessment, which is used by FSIS, FDA, and other regulatory agencies worldwide to reduce foodborne diseases.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Predicting L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods is a high priority for FDA/FSIS. The models developed by ARS directly assist Federal regulatory agencies in developing risk assessment information for consumers, and food companies in designing salad formulations that present lower health risks. In addition, ARS’ research also helps
OBJECTIVE 3.2: Develop and Deliver Science-Based Information and Technologies To Reduce the Number and Severity of Agricultural
During FY 2005, ARS will
further determine partial and full genomic sequences of important animal pathogens (target four priority diseases) to better understand the evolution of new variants, determinants of virulence, host range specificity, and factors that enable evasion from host defense mechanisms.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists at the
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Comparative microbial genomics, studies to identify genetic variations associated with differences in phenotypic or biological traits, is a powerful way to identify genes and gene products that may be important in protection and may be useful in developing improved vaccines and diagnostic tests.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Bovine babesiosis is a tick borne, hemoparasitic protozoal disease. The
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The lack of a vaccine for control of babesiosis leaves
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Bordetella bronchiseptica is an important respiratory pathogen of pigs associated with the porcine respiratory disease complex. When pathogenic bacteria encounter their host, they react by turning on specific genes which enable them to establish an infection and cause disease. ARS scientists at the
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Until recently, monitoring what genes are turned on or off in response to infection has been difficult. With the advent of microarray technology and whole genome sequencing, ARS has been able to identify proteins that are produced during infection that are potential vaccine candidates.
further investigate the pathogenesis of important animal pathogens (target two priority diseases) to better understand tissue tropism, disease transmission, virulence and the identification of phenotypic markers.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Intensive genetic selection for fast growing high yield birds has led to tremendous improvements in production efficiency. However, selection pressure for rapid growth has negatively affected the normal development of the musculoskeletal system. ARS scientists have been investigating the molecular mechanisms of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a common poultry skeletal problem, using a disease model that employs thiram (a fungicide) to disrupt chondrocyte growth and differentiation with the goal of finding whether this important skeletal problem can be prevented using nutritional means. ARS scientists examined the changes in gene expression and the cellular and metabolic alterations in the growth plate during early periods of the onset of TD. These studies revealed that TD was not induced by an aberrant pattern of gene expression in the growth plate, but was due to the death of endothelial cells that cause capillary vessel degeneration that leads to subsequent chondrocyte death.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: These studies provide insight into the pathogenesis of TD. They will be useful in identifying the nutritional factors that may help prevent blood vessel death and TD.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists have determined critical innate immune markers required for effective immune responses against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Ongoing genetic studies with University Nebraska-Lincoln scientists indicate that there may be correlations between levels of certain innate cytokines and resistance to PRRS associated pathologies. ARS scientists have demonstrated that PRRS virus infection does not result in the induction of type I interferons in MARC 145 cells as would be expected with most ribonucleic acid viruses.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: These results are significant because both IFNA and IFNB (type I interferons) are members of the innate immune system, which is typically viewed as the first responder of the immune system. Activation of this response signals other branches of the immune system to become activated and mount a protective immune response. The fact that PRRS virus is capable of suppressing the activation of this response may explain the general delayed immune response to PRRS virus infection. Elucidation of the mechanism of PRRS virus suppression of the type I interferon response may provide targets for novel vaccination approaches to control this important disease.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) causes a disease in horses, cattle, swine, and occasionally sheep and goats that resembles foot-and-mouth disease. Although generally self-limiting, it can have severe economic consequences by reducing production through recrudescence and secondary bacterial infection. Transmitted by a number of biting flies, the common biting midge of the Northern Plains is one of the important vectors in the
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The creation of cDNA libraries provides a tool for determining which biting midge genes are involved in the infection process of the fly. Beyond biological interest, an understanding of the physiological mechanisms of vector infection will provide additional targets for suppression of VSV transmission. Potential mechanisms to disrupt transmission include genetic alteration of the biting midges to make them non-susceptible to VSV, creation of transmission blocking vaccines (administered to livestock) that disrupt the vector infection process, or the use of antiviral preparation administered to flies.
further investigate the epidemiology of important animal diseases (target two priority diseases) to better understand their ecology and life cycle and provide effective disease surveillance to facilitate the development of control strategies and prevent disease transmission.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists have discovered an avian rotavirus in specimens from turkeys with poult enteritis and broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome. Rotaviruses are well known enteric pathogens that have been minimally characterized in poultry. Initial pathogenesis studies were performed with clinical specimens containing rotavirus. Identification of the viral agents associated with poult enteritis and the new similar condition in chickens, broiler runting-stunting syndrome, is critical to controlling the disease.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Poult enteritis mortality syndrome (PEMS) is a highly infectious disease of young turkeys. PEMS was first reported in
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: New methods were developed and validated by ARS scientists for geographically extensive and site intensive surveys and inventories of parasites in ungulate hosts based on the application of molecular sequence data. Protostrongyle nematodes include pathogenic parasites that reside in the pulmonary system, skeletal musculature, or the central nervous system of their ruminant hosts. Identification based on either adults in tissue and tissue spaces, or larval parasites in feces has remained problematic, and has hampered a detailed understanding of host distribution and geographic range. Such information is critical in defining the potential for disease, and the degree to which parasites may be shared among a number of different ungulates. A combination of comparative morphology and molecular analyses were applied to define the host and geographic range for Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This research provided significant molecular epidemiological data and represents the first study to combine extensive fecal surveys, comparative morphology, and molecular diagnostic techniques to comprehensively describe the host associations and geographic distribution of a parasitic helminth. The development of such “epidemiological probes” will have significant applications in veterinary and conservation medicine.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) infects animals worldwide, with constant transmission in the tropics and seasonal, sometimes epizootic, transmission in temperate regions. A variety of biting flies (black flies, sand flies, biting midges) are known to transmit the virus. ARS has shown that in addition to the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, the sand fly, Lutzomyia apache, and grasshoppers (through ingestion by livestock) are important in the transmission of VSV.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The addition of Lutzomyia apache to the list of vectors is of interest because this sand fly is not generally targeted for vector control and also because it could become a vector of invasive pathogens like Rift Valley Fever virus. The discovery that it is a vector of VSV should lead to additional studies of its basic bionomics so that entomologists can develop the means for its management. Infection with VSV from the ingestion of grasshoppers is a surprising finding. It remains to be discovered whether or not this occurs over a broad enough area that it justifies control.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: West Nile virus (WNV) was suddenly introduced into the
IMPACT/OUTCOME: WNV transmission in
During FY 2005, ARS will continue to identify genetic markers and genes (target one marker, gene, or gene cluster) from food animals that can be used to identify animals with disease resistant traits.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Current control measures for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in livestock depend on identification of the most appropriate tissue for diagnostic testing and identification of candidate resistant genotypes. The genetic analysis performed by ARS scientists provides the scientific basis for selecting the brain as the most reliable indicator of disease in elk, in contrast to the tests for deer, which rely on lymphoid tissue.
During FY 2005, ARS will continue to discover and develop novel technologies (target two high priority diseases) to detect and control diseases of food animal pests that impact animal and human health, animal production, and trade.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Research into live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine administration to layer chickens has shown that the pressure (psi) utilized for spray administration is extremely important in impacting subsequent seroconversion (positive blood tests). A survey of the layer chicken industry showed that pressure settings used for the administration of live MG vaccine varied from 35-70 psi. Research conducted by ARS scientists using the CPJ Vaccinator to determine the optimum pressure setting to dispense live MG vaccine demonstrated dramatic increases in MG colony counts resulting from using the lower (40 psi) setting as compared to the higher 60 psi setting.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This information is important as it explains one factor (pressure setting of the vaccinator) that can impact the administration of live MG vaccines that may, in turn, result in poor vaccination results. As a result of poor vaccine test results, re-vaccination must take place, which entails costs of additional vaccine (approximately $1,500 for a 75,000 bird house) and labor.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists, in collaboration with scientists at Mount Sinai School of Medicine and St. Jude's Children's Hospital, successfully used reverse genetics to develop a novel cross-protective vaccine for swine flu. Preliminary studies indicate this vaccine may have a broader level of cross protection when compared to currently available swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccines that are inactivated or killed. These studies have also demonstrated a virulence mechanism that will impact the design of future commercially available SIV vaccines.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Swine influenza is a re-emerging disease around the world as a result of several genetic changes in the viral populations being isolated from swine. This has resulted in a reduced efficacy of current commercially available vaccines. The availability of a highly effective vaccine for control and eradication may be the first line of defense against emerging swine flu outbreaks.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Coccidiosis is a ubiquitous intestinal protozoan infection of poultry that seriously impairs the growth and feed utilization of infected birds. This enteric disease is caused by several distinct apicomplexan species of obligate intracellular parasites of the genus Eimeria. The use of anti-coccidial drugs is the primary control method, but the worldwide emergence of drug-resistant coccidia strains are limiting the effectiveness of existing therapeutics. This problem is compounded by our lack of understanding of the mechanism(s) that confer(s) drug resistance and the host-parasite and environmental factors that influence coccidiosis susceptibility. The discovery of highly effective vaccines may provide an important alternative to drug therapy. Current vaccines, which are comprised of one or more live coccidian species do not provide cross-protection against all seven species of Eimeria.
During FY 2005, ARS will continue to identify and characterize genes of insect resistance in crop plants, closely related non-crop species, and other species, to enhance opportunities for developing host plant resistance, and to incorporate such genes into commercially acceptable varieties.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Researchers at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The results of greenhouse evaluations conducted under controlled conditions at
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS scientists in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Identifying sources of resistance is a key step in the development of rust-resistant commercial soybean cultivars that can be planted by growers thereby reducing potential losses due to rust.
During FY 2005, ARS will
continue to develop fundamental knowledge about insect biology and ecology that provides the foundation for strategies to exclude, detect, and mitigate pest infestations.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The vast majority of identifications are provided to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service’s (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine division. APHIS reports that nine species identified by ARS scientists were new immigrants to the
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: The red flour beetle is the first agronomic pest species to be sequenced. It represents the joint efforts of the ARS Grain Marketing and
IMPACT/OUTCOME: The analysis of this sequence will have far reaching impacts on understanding physiological adaptations of pest and beneficial beetle species, and the identification of novel targets for pest control exploitation.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Radio transmitters have been used to track everything from antelope to zebra, but not insects. Scientists from the ARS Northern Plains Area, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, and University of Toronto-Mississauga, placed miniature radio transmitters on Mormon Crickets to study their behavior and movement. Mormon Crickets are notorious for their huge and devastating swarms (or bands), and their ability to migrate hundreds of miles in the Western States. Why and how these swarms are formed and maintained has been a mystery until now. The researchers demonstrated that Mormon crickets form migratory swarms to avoid being eaten by their predators. Once the swarms are formed, the movement of individual crickets within these groups is induced simply by contact with other crickets, thereby providing a mechanism to explain the constant long-term movement of these insect groups across the landscape.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This research helps explain why insects around the world, such as the infamous desert locust in
continue to develop fundamental knowledge about weed biology, ecology, and risk analysis that provides the foundation for strategies to exclude, detect, and mitigate weed infestations.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Intercrossing between rice and ecotypes of weedy red rice, a dominant weed in the
IMPACT/OUTCOME: These analyses may allow the rice industry to identify (or rule out) the parental lines that are responsible for the development of an unwanted population of herbicide-resistant rice x red rice hybrids, a key management consideration in herbicide-resistant rice systems.
continue to develop fundamental knowledge about plant disease biology and ecology that provides the foundation for strategies to exclude, detect, and mitigate pest infestations.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Scientists at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: These methods allow for highly accurate assessments of when an epidemic begins in a specific field and the timing of fungicide applications. More accurate determinations of the environmental conditions favorable for spore movement can be determined leading to more accurate assessments of disease outbreaks.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: ARS has developed rapid, reliable pathogen detection and identification procedures for accurate and timely disease diagnosis for soybean rust and other high profile pathogens on the USDA Select Agent List.
IMPACT/OUTCOME: ARS has provided this assay to diagnosticians across the
During FY 2005, ARS will
continue to develop and demonstrate technologies for excluding, detecting, and mitigating native and invasive insect pests, including integrated pest management (IPM) and areawide approaches, and deliver IPM components and systems to ARS customers.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: The Russian wheat aphid is a serious pest of wheat and barley in the Western States. Resistant wheat varieties served as the cornerstone for managing Russian wheat aphid until 2003, when a biotype (AKA strain) of the aphid appeared that was able to feed on, injure, and kill the resistant wheat. The aphid-resistance in these wheat varieties was based on the same wheat gene. In 2005, ARS scientists at the Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Due to these population monitoring activities by the ARS, scientists in the
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: The tarnished plant bug is a serious pest of cotton that is becoming more resistant to insecticides, requiring growers to use higher and higher levels of chemicals to achieve the same level of control. Within a few years, insecticides may no longer be effective against this pest. The tarnished plant bug is being thwarted thanks to a program that includes use of alternative host destruction, host-plant resistance, fungal pathogens, and remote sensing technology by ARS scientists based in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: A cost/benefit analysis of the program on over 21,000 acres demonstrated benefits of $10.28 for every $1 applied to using the technology. Economists have determined the technology produced a $5.48 savings per acre in reduced insecticide costs. The savings in reduced insecticide costs for the technology was $8.1 million.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Accurate and inexpensive methods are needed for monitoring wheat fields to determine the presence of Russian wheat aphid or greenbug infestations. Wheat farmers and scientist cannot always easily detect aphid infestations or do not have the time to closely monitor their fields. ARS scientists from the Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillwater, Oklahoma, in collaboration with the cooperators at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, developed remote sensing technology for identifying greenbug and Russian wheat aphid-infested fields. Images obtained from aircraft enable the detection of Russian wheat aphid and greenbug infestations. Fields with high aphid infestations can be differentiated from fields with low infestations by unique "spatial signatures".
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Ultimately, this technology could be applied for broad scale monitoring of wheat fields for greenbug and Russian wheat aphid infestations using existing satellites in the earth’s orbit.
continue to develop and demonstrate technologies, including risk analysis, for excluding, detecting, and mitigating native and invasive weed pests, including IPM and areawide approaches, and deliver IPM components and systems to ARS customers.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: In-crop herbicidal options, especially herbicides that can be applied to control a broad-spectrum of grass and broadleaf weeds at the start of a growing season when weeds have their greatest impact on sugar yields, are limited. Scientists at the Sugarcane Research Unit in
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Results of this research were used to support manufacturer petitions to the Environmental Protection Agency for two herbicides, which were received in time for the 2004 growing season.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: The Australian melaleuca tree (Melaleuca quinquenervia) is an extremely aggressive invasive plant that alters the drainage of
IMPACT/OUTCOME: Both species are contributing to the successful biological control of melaleuca. In particular, the psyllid has spread throughout the infestation of melaleuca, and is significantly affecting growth and survival of the weed. In fact, melaleuca is almost gone from public lands.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Invasive saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) shrubs from Eurasia infest many
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This research is important as it interfaces with on-going investigations of biologically based saltcedar control, provides revegetation strategies for land managers that are interested in removing and replacing saltcedar, and assists in evaluation of the impact of the program on an endangered bird.
continue to develop and demonstrate technologies for excluding, detecting, and mitigating emerging and re-emerging plant disease pests, including IPM and areawide approaches, and deliver IPM components and systems to ARS customers.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Scientists from the Molecular and Plant Pathology Laboratory at
IMPACT/OUTCOME: This accomplishment provides new knowledge important for understanding the mechanisms involved in pathogenicity and transmission of these pathogens by insect vectors.
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