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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

ARS 50th Anniversary Celebration

Logo Image for "A R S : The Future Grows Here"Agricultural Research Service
50th Anniversary

National Scientific Leadership Meeting and
Annual Recognition Program

Proud Past and Promising Future
January 21-23, 2004
New Orleans, Louisiana

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Thomas (Ed) Cleveland

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Thomas ClevelandThomas (Ed) Cleveland received his Doctor of Philosophy degree in Plant Pathology at Louisiana State University in 1980. After receiving his doctorate, he obtained a research fellowship in the Plant Pathology Department at the University of Kentucky. He investigated fungal enzymes involved in the detoxification of isoflavonoid phytoalexins and penetration of host-plant defenses.

Subsequently in 1982, he was the recipient of a Rockefeller Research Fellowship and began work in Dr. C. A. Ryan's laboratory at the Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University where he characterized plant genes involved in insect resistance in crop plants and participated in the first experiments to incorporate these genes into transgenic plants.

In 1985, he accepted a position with the Food and Feed Safety group at the Southern Regional Center of the USDA located in New Orleans. He is now the Research Leader of this same group and is investigating methods to enhance resistance to invasion of crops by toxin-producing microbes and to interrupt the expression of toxin biosynthetic genes.

Phone (504) 286-4387
Fax (504) 286-4419

 

CURRICULUM VITAE

Educational Background

1969-73 Louisiana Tech University; major, Zoology; B.S.

1973-75 Louisiana Tech University; major, Microbiology; M.S.

1975-80 Louisiana State University; major, Plant Pathology; minor, Biochemistry; Ph.D.

Research Experience:

1973-75, Research Assistant (M.S. program), Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA. Thesis: Effects of gaseous contaminants on fungal associates in rhizospheres of Pinus taeda and Quercus alba.

1975-80, Research Assistant (Ph.D. program), Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Thesis: Partial purification of proteinase inhibitors from wounded and Phytophthora infestans -infected tomato plants.

1980-82, Postdoctoral Fellow, Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. Project: Relationship between isoflavonoid-detoxifying enzymes in isolates of Fusarium and their pathogenicity on Phaseolus vulgaris.

1982-84, Rockefeller Fellow, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. Project: Characterization of a wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor gene from potato and its wound-inducible expression in transgenic tobacco plants.

1984-88, Microbiologist, Southern Regional Research Ctr, USDA, ARS, New Orleans, LA. Molecular regulation of aflatoxin formation in crops.

1988-03, Research Leader (GS 15), Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA. Leads research program to investigate the biology and molecular biology of mycotoxin formation and the induction mechanisms for phytoestrogen biosynthesis in developing crops. Specific research areas include: (1) enhancement of host-plant resistance to mycotoxin producing fungi through marker assisted breeding and/or plant genetic engineering, (2) elucidation of the complex biochemical and genetic regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in order to design technology to interrupt this process, and (3) induction mechanisms for isoflavonoid biosynthetic pathways leading to production of phytoestrogens in soybean.

Special Assignments

1998 Acting Center Director, Western Regional Research Center, USDA, ARS, Albany, CA. (April 6-June 19).

1997 Temporary Detail, National Program Staff, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD. (January 23-March 7).

Membership in Professional Societies:

American Phytopathological Society

Southern Division, American Phytopathological Society

American Association for the Advancement of Science (Fellow)

Sigma Xi

Society of Industrial Microbiology (Fellow)

Committee and Panel Assignments:

Past Chairman of Post-harvest Pathology and Mycotoxicology Committee of the American Phytopathological Society, 1991. Served on USDA (NRI and Genomics) panels, Washington, D.C., 1994, 1998 and 2000. Panel member, review of ARS, USDA competitive grant proposals for control of preharvest aflatoxin contamination of U. S. crops, 1992-1998. Panel member, review of competitive grant proposals for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2001.

Honors and Awards:

1988 Appointed as Affiliate Faculty Member, Dept. of Plant Pathology & Crop Physiology; Dissertations Co-directed: B. Guo, 1995, Y-K. Goh, 2001

1990 ARS Early Career Scientist Award, Mid South Area

1992 Outstanding Paper, 1st Place in SRRC, 3rd Place Mid South Area

1992 Certificate Appreciation for Successful Redirection of Center Research

1993 Certificate of Appreciation for Technical and Administrative Support during 120-day detail in Director's Office.

1995 Awarded Outstanding Federal Manager by Federal Executive Board of New Orleans.

1996 Elected Member, United States, Japanese Cooperative Program on Development and Utilization of Natural Resources Panel.

1998 Received U. S. Department of Agriculture, Group Honor Award for Personal and Professional Excellence. Citation: For elimination of aflatoxin, a potent carcinogen, from food and feed supplies, and preventing severe economic losses, awarded by Secretary, Dan Glickman.

1998 Outstanding SRRC Scientist Award.

1998, 1999, 2001 Co-author on "Outstanding Paper of the Year" SRRC.

1998 Certificate of Appreciation for Creative Leadership During Assignment as Acting Center Director of WRRC.

2002 Awarded NRI/USDA Grant ($240,000) and Multicrop Aflatoxin Working Group (ARS) Grant ($28,000).

2002 Elected Fellow of the Society of Industrial Microbiology.

2003 Elected Fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science.

Special Invitations:

1993 Co-chaired symposium on "Molecular Regulation Microbial Secondary Metabolism", Asilomar Fungal Genetics Conf., Pacific Grove, CA.

1993 Invited platform speaker, Gordon Conferences on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins.

1993 & 1999 Session Chair, Gordon Conferences on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins

1994 Invited speaker, American Association Cereal Chemists symposium, Nashville, TN.

1994 Keynote speaker, "Aflatoxins: Their Biosynthesis, Molecular Regulation and Possible Role in Nature", International Congress on Natural Products, Halifax, Nova Scotia

1995 Invited talk, "Regulation of Genes on Aflatoxin Gene Cluster", Asilomar Fungal Genetics Confer., Pacific Grove, CA.

1996 Elected to U. S.-Japan Natural Resources Panel on Toxic Microorganisms.

1998 Keynote speaker, "Biotechnology for Solving Problems for the Peanut Industry", USA Peanut Congress.

1999 Invited speaker at International Union of Microbiologists Society meeting, Sydney, Australia.

2002 Co-chair of symposium: Fungal Toxins: Molecular Biology and Genomics, Society of Industrial Microbiology meetings.

2002 Serves on editorial board for Applied Mycology and Biotechnology.

2004 Co-organizer of Society of Industrial Microbiology Meetings and Symposium on Fungal Genomics for Harnessing Beneficial Biochemical Processes and Controlling Harmful Toxins.

Publications:
156 articles (including two patents); abstracts not included.

Authors (see below publications) who have carried out Dr. Cleveland's research program as Post Doctorate Associates under his guidance include:

N. Keller**
J. Cary*
R. Brown*
J. Yu*
A-L. Moyne**
B. Guo*
P-K. Chang*
Z. Chen***
S. Gembeh**
D. Greene-McDowelle**
S. Boue*

*Recruited as Permanent ARS Scientists
**Recruited by Universities
***Current Postdoctorates

1. Cleveland, T. E. Effects of gaseous contaminants on fungal associates in rhizospheres of Pinus taeda and Quercus alba. Louisiana Tech University. 85 pp. 1975. (M.S. Thesis)

2. Cleveland, T. E. Partial purification of proteinase inhibitors from tomato leaf tissue infected with Phytophthora infestans. Louisiana State University. 58 pp. 1980. (Ph.D. Dissertation)

3. Smith, D. A., Harrer, J. M., and Cleveland, T. E. Simultaneous detoxification of phytoalexins by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. Phytopathology. 71:1212-1215. 1981.

4. Cleveland, T. E. and Black, L. L. Partial purification of proteinase inhibitors from wounded tomato plants. Plant Physiol. 69:537-542. 1982.

5. Smith, D. A., Harrer, J. M., and Cleveland, T. E. Relation between production of extracellular kievitone hydratase by isolates of Fusarium and their pathogenicity on Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytopathology. 72:1319-1323. 1982.

6. Cleveland, T. E. and Black, L. L. Partial purification of proteinase inhibitors from tomato plants infected with Phytophthora infestans. Phytopathology. 73:664-670. 1983.

7. Cleveland, T. E. and Smith, D. A. Partial purification, and further characterization, of kievitone hydratase from cell-free culture filtrates of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 22:129-142. 1983.

8. Smith, D. A., Wheeler, H. E., Banks, S. W., and Cleveland, T. E. Association between lower kievitone hydratase activity and reduced virulence to bean in variants of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 25:135-147. 1984.

9. Cleveland, T. E., Thornburg, R. W., and Ryan, C. A. Molecular characterization of a wound-inducible Inhibitor I gene from potato and the processing of its mRNA and protein. Plant Mol. Biol. 8:199-2O7. 1987.

10. Thornburg, R. W., An, G., Cleveland, T. E., Johnson, R., and Ryan, C. A. Wound-inducible expression of a potato inhibitor II--chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84:744-748. 1987.

11. Cleveland, T. E., Lax, A. R., Lee, L. S., and Bhatnagar, D. Appearance of enzyme activities catalyzing conversion of sterigmatocystin to aflatoxin B1 in late-growth phase Aspergillus parasiticus cultures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:1711-1713. 1987.

12. Cleveland, T. E. and McCormick, S. P. Identification of pectinases in cotton bolls infected with Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathology. 77:1498-1503. 1987.

13. Edwards, J. V., Bland, J. M., Cornell, D. G., Cleveland, T. E., Landry, S., and Bartlett, S. G. Studies on synthetic peptides of small subunit of ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO). In Tenth American Peptide Symposium, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. l987. (Proceedings)

14. Lillehoj, E. B., Cleveland, T. E., and Bhatnagar, D. Natural occurrence of mycotoxin in novel substrates used for animal feed. In Smith, J. E. (ed.) Mycotoxin and Animal Feedstuffs: Natural Occurrence Toxicity and Control, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 875 pp. 1987. (Book Chapter)

15. Ryan, C. A., Graham, J., Thornburg, R., Lee, J., Brown, W., Fox, E., Cleveland, T. E., Hall, G., Pearce, G., and An, G. The molecular biology and genetic engineering of plant proteinase inhibitors. In Workshop for the International Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India. 1987. (Proceedings)

16. Thornburg, R. W., An, G., Cleveland, T. E., and Ryan, C. A. Characterization of a wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor II gene from potato. In Kosuge, T. and Bruening, G. (eds.), Tailoring Plant Genes for Crop Improvement, Academic Press Inc., New York, NY. l987. (Book Chapter)

17. Cleveland, T. E. and Bhatnagar, D. Individual reaction requirements of two enzyme activities, isolated from Aspergillus parasiticus, which together catalyze conversion of sterigmatocystin to aflatoxin B1. Can. J. Microbiol. 33:1108-1112. 1987.

18. Cleveland, T. E., Bhatnagar, D., Foell, C. J., and McCormick, S. P. Conversion of a new metabolite to aflatoxin B2 by Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:2804-2807. 1987.

19. Cuero, R. G., Lillehoj, E. B., Cleveland, T. E., and Reine, A. R. Chitosan as a control agent of toxigenic fungal growth and aflatoxin production. Proceedings of the 1988 International Phytopathology Meetings, Japan. 1988. (Proceedings)

20. Bhatnagar, D. and Cleveland, T. E. Fate of the methyl group during the conversion of sterigmatocystin to O-methlysterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B1 by cell-free preparations of Aspergillus parasiticus. Biochimie. 70:743-747. 1988.

21. Bhatnagar, D., Ullah, A. H., and Cleveland, T. E. Purification and characterization of methyltransferase from Aspergillus parasiticus SRRC 163 involved in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. Preparative Biochemistry. 18(3):321-349. 1988.

22. Cleveland, T. E. Conversion of Dihydro-O-methylsterigmatocystin to aflatoxin B2 by Aspergillus parasiticus. Arch. Environ. Contamination and Toxicol. 18:429-433. 1989.

23. Bhatnagar, D. and Cleveland, T. E. Utilization of purified pertinent fungal enzymes for development of probes to identify genes responsible for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Proc. of International Symposium on Agricultural and Biological Aspects of Aflatoxin Related Health Hazards, Delhi, India. 1989. (Proceedings)

24. Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E. and Lillehoj, E. B. Enzymes in late stages of aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis: Strategies for identifying pertinent genes. Mycopathologia. 107:75-83. 1989.

25. Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Lax, A. R. Comparison of the enzymatic composition of the cell-free extracts of two non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus isolates with respect to late stages of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Arch. Environ. Contamination and Toxicol. 18:434-438. 1989.

26. Kang, M. S., Lillehoj, E. B., Widstrom, N. W., and Cleveland, T. E. Field aflatoxin contamination of maize populations of broad genetic base. LSU Agricultural School Bulletin. 1989. (Bulletin)

27. Cleveland, T. E., Bhatnagar, D., Cotty, P. J., and Zeringue, H. J. Aflatoxin reduction--A molecular strategy. Proc. of Second Intl. Biotechnology and Food Safety Symposium. pp. 117-135. 1990. (Proceedings)

28. Cleveland, T. E. and Bhatnagar, D. Evidence for de novo synthesis of an aflatoxin pathway-methyltransferase near the cessation of active growth and the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus mycelia. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 36:1-5. 1990.

29. Cleveland, T. E., Bhatnagar, D., and Cotty, P. J. Control of biosynthesis of aflatoxin in strains of Aspergillus flavus. Perspective on Aflatoxin in Field Crops/Animal Food Products in U.S., ARS-83. pp. 67-73. 1990. (Special ARS bulletin)

30. Bhatnagar, D., Neucere, J. N., and Cleveland, T. E. Immunochemical detection of aflatoxigenic potential of Aspergillus sp. with antisera prepared against enzymes specific to aflatoxin biosynthesis. Food and Agricultural Immunology. 1:225-234. 1990.

31. Cotty, P. J., Cleveland, T. E., Brown, R. L., and Mellon, J. E. Variation of polygalacturonase production among Aspergillus flavus isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:3885-3887. 1990.

32. Cleveland, T. E. and Cotty, P. J. Invasiveness of Aspergillus flavus isolates in wounded cotton bolls is associated with production of a specific fungal polygalacturonase. Phytopathology. 81:155-158. 1991.

33. Scott, G. E., Zummo, N., Lillehoj, E. B., Widstrom, N. W., Kang, M. S., West, D. R., Payne, G. A., Cleveland, T. E., Calvert, O. H., and Fortnum, B. A. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids field inoculated with Aspergillus flavus. Agronomy Journal. 83:595-598. 1991.

34. Cleveland, T. E. and Bhatnagar, D. Molecular regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In Pennington Center Nutrition Series, Vol. 1, Mycotoxin, Cancer and Health (G. A. Bray and D. H. Ryan, eds.). 1991. (Book Chapter)

35. Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Kingston, D. G. I. Enzymological evidence for separate pathways for aflatoxin B1 and B2 biosynthesis. Biochemistry. 30:4343-4350. 1991.

36. Bhatnagar, D., Ehrlich, K. C., and Cleveland, T. E. Oxidation-reduction reactions in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In Bhatnagar, D., Lillehoj, E. B., and Arora, D. K. (eds.), Handbook of Applied Mycology, Volume V, Mycotoxin in Ecological Systems, Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 219-233. 1991. (Book Chapter)

37. Cleveland, T. E., Bhatnagar, D., and Brown, R. L. Aflatoxin production via cross-feeding of pathway intermediates during co-fermentation of aflatoxin pathway-blocked mutants of Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57(10):2907-2911. 1991.

38. Brown, R. L., Cotty, P. J., and Cleveland, T. E. Reduction in aflatoxin content of maize by atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. J. of Food Protection. 54(8):623-629. 1991.

39. Cleveland, T. E. and Bhatnagar, D. Aflatoxins: Elimination through biotechnology. In Hui, Y. H. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 6-11. 1991. (Book Chapter)

40. Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., Keller, N. P., and Cary, J. W. Control of aflatoxin contamination: Characterization of the toxin biosynthetic pathway. Proc. U.S.-Japan Natural Resources Panel. pp. 76-100. 1991. (Proceedings)

41. Lillehoj, E. B., Cleveland, T. E., and Bhatnagar, D. Mycotoxin in feedstuffs: Production in novel substrates. In Smith, J. E. and Henderson, R. S. (eds.). Mycotoxin and Animal Foods, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 399-414. 1991. (Book Chapter)

42. Bhatnagar, D. and Cleveland, T. E. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: Developments in Chemistry, Biochemistry and Genetics. In Shotwell, O. L. and Hurburgh, C. R. (eds.). Aflatoxin in Corn/New Perspectives, Iowa St. University, Ames, IA. pp. 391-405. 1991. (Book Chapter)

43. Neucere, J. N., Cleveland, T. E., and Dischinger, C. Existence of chitinase activity in mature corn kernels (Zea mays L.). J. Agrl. Food Chem. 39:1326-1328. 1991.

44. Keller, N. P., Cleveland, T. E., and Bhatnagar, D. Variable electrophoretic karyotypes in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Current Genetics. 21:371-375. 1992.

45. Keller, N. P., Cleveland, T. E., and Bhatnagar, D. A molecular approach towards understanding aflatoxin production. In Bhatnagar, D., Lillehoj, E. B., and Arora, D. K. (eds.). Handbook of Applied Mycology, Volume V, Mycotoxin in Ecological Systems, Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 287-310. 1992. (Book Chapter)

46. Cleveland, T. E. and Bhatnagar, D. Molecular strategies for reducing aflatoxin levels in crops before harvest. In Bhatnagar, D. and Cleveland, T. E. (eds.). Molecular Approaches to Improving Food Quality and Safety, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. pp. 205-228. 1992. (Book Chapter)

47. Neucere, J. N., Ullah, A. H. J., and Cleveland, T. E. Surface proteins of two aflatoxin producing isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus mycelia: I - A comparative immunological profile. J. Agrl. Food Chem. 40(9):1610-1612. 1992.

48. Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., Cotty, P. J., and Mellon, J. E. Spread of Aspergillus flavus in cotton bolls, decay of intercarpellary membranes, and production of fungal pectinases. Phytopathology. 82(4):462-467. 1992.

49. Ullah, A. H. J., Neucere, J. N., and Cleveland, T. E. Surface Proteins of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus: II - HPLC protein mapping of GPC, IEC, and RPC. J. Agrl. Food Chem. 40(9):1613-1616. 1992.

50. Gorman, D. P., Kang, M. S., Cleveland, T., and Hutchinson, R. L. Field aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on maize kernels. Euphytica. 61:187-191. 1992.

51. Payne, G. A., Nystrom, G. J., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Woloshuk, C. P. Cloning of the afl-2 gene involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis from Aspergillus flavus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:156-162. 1993.

52. Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Cotty, P. J. Mycological Aspects of Aflatoxin Formation. In Eaton, D. L. and Groopman, J. (eds.). Mycological Aspects of Aflatoxin Formation. Academic Press. Florida. pp. 327-346. 1993. (Book chapter)

53. Keller, N. P., Dischinger, H. C., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Ullah, A. H. J. Purification of a 40-kDa methyltransferase active in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59(2):479-484. 1993.

54. Liu, B. H., Keller, N. P., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Chu, F. S. Production and characterization of antibodies against sterigmatocystin O-methyltransferase. Food Agric. Immunol. 5:155-164. 1993.

55. Chang, P-K, Cary, J. W., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., Bennett, J. W., Linz, J. E., Woloshuk, C. P., and Payne, G. A. Cloning of the Aspergillus parasiticus apa2 gene associated with the regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3273-3279. 1993.

56. Yu, J., Cary, J. W., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., Keller, N. P., and Chu, F. S. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA from Aspergillus parasiticus encoding an O-methyltransferase involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3564-3571. 1993.

57. Bhatnagar, D., Cotty, P. J., and Cleveland, T. E. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination: Molecular strategies for its control. In Spanier, A. M., Okai, H. and Tamura, M. (eds.). Food Flavor and Safety: Molecular Analysis and Design in its Study, ACS Symp. Series 528, Washington, D.C. 1993. (Book Chapter)

58. Brown, R. L., Cotty, P. J., Cleveland, T. E., and Widstrom, N. W. Living maize embryo influences accumulation of aflatoxin in maize kernels. J. Food Protection. 56(11):967-971. 1993.

59. Zeringue, Jr., H. J., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. C15H24 volatile compounds unique to aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59(7):2264-2270. 1993.

60. Woloshuk, C. P., Foutz, K. R., Brewer, J. F., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Payne, G. A. Molecular characterization of aflR, a regulatory locus for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60(7):2408-2414. 1994.

61. Keller, N. P., Brown, D., Butchkol, R. A. E., Fernandez, M., Kelkar, H., Nesbitt, C. Segner, S., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Adams, T. H. A conserved polyketide mycotoxin gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans. In Molecular Approaches to Food Safety; Issues Involving Toxic Microorganisms. (eds.) M. Eklund, J. L. Richard, and K. Mise. Alaken, Inc. Fort Collins, CO. pp. 249-261. 1995. (Book Chapter)

62. Cary, J. W., Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., Whitehead, W., and Dean, R. A. Cloning and characterization of a novel polygalacturonase gene from Aspergillus parasiticus. Gene. 153:129-133. 1995.

63. Guo, B. Z., Russin, J. S., Cleveland, T. E., Brown, R. L., and Widstrom, N. W. Wax and cutin layers in maize kernels associated resistance to aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus. J. Food Protection. 58(3):296-300. 1995.

64. Guo, B. Z., Russin, J. S., Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., and Widstrom, N. W. Resistance to aflatoxin contamination in corn as influenced by relative humidity and kernel germination. J. Food Protection. 59:276-281. 1995.

65. Neucere, J. N., Brown, R. L., and Cleveland, T. E. Correlation of antifungal properties and B-1,3-glucanases in aqueous extracts of kernels from several varieties of corn. J. Agrl. Food Chem. 43(2):275-276. 1995.

66. Bhatnagar, D., Payne, G., Linz, J. E., and Cleveland, T. E. Molecular biology to eliminate aflatoxins. INFORM. 6(3):262-271. 1995. (Popular Communication)

67. Chang, P.-K., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Bennett, J. W. Sequence variability in homologs of the aflatoxin pathway gene aflR distinguishes species in Aspergillus Section Flavi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:40-43. 1995.

68. Widstrom, N. W., Snook, M. E., Wilson, D. M., Cleveland, T. E., and McMillian, W. W. Silk maysin content and resistance of commercial corn hybrids to kernel contamination by aflatoxin. J. Science Food Agricul. 67:317-321. 1995.

69. Ho, M-C., Whitehead, M. P., Cleveland, T. E., and Dean R. A. Specific binding of the repressor protein CREA to the pectate lyase pelA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. Curr. Genet. 27:142-149. 1995.

70. Chlan, C., Lin, J., Cary, J. W., and Cleveland, T. E. A procedure for biolistic transformation and regeneration of transgenic cotton from meristematic tissue. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter. 13:(1) 31-37. 1995.

71. Klich, M. A., Yu, J., Chang, P-K, Mullaney, E. J., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Hybridization of genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis to DNA of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergilli. J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 44:439-443. 1995.

72. Chang, P.-K., Ehrlich, K. C., Yu, J., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland T. E. Increased expression of Aspergillus parasiticus aflR, encoding a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, relieves nitrate inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(6):2372-2379. 1995.

73. Yu, J., Chang, P.-K., Cary, J. W., Wright, M., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., Payne, G. A., and Linz, J. E. Comparative mapping of aflatoxin pathway gene clusters in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(6):2365-2371. 1995.

74. Chang, P.-K., Cary, J. W., Yu, J. Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. The Aspergillus parasiticus polyketide synthase gene pksA, a homolog of Aspergillus nidulans wA, is required for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Molecular and General Genetics. 248:270-277. 1995.

75. Yu, J., Chang, P.-K., Payne, G. A., Cary, J. W., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Comparison of the omtA genes encoding O-methyltransferases involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis from Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus. Gene. 163: 121-125. 1995.

76. Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., Payne, G. A., and Woloshuk, C. P. Determination of resistance to aflatoxin contamination in maize kernels and detection of fungal colonization using an Aspergillus flavus transformant expressing Escherichia coli B-glucuronidase. Phytopathology. 85:983-989. 1995.

77. Payne, G. A., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Linz, J. E. Genomic organization and regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In Molecular Approaches to Food Safety; Issues Involving Toxic Microorganisms. (ed.) M. Eklund, J. L. Richard, and K. Mise. Alaken, Inc, Fort Collins, CO. pp. 249-261. 1995. (Book Chapter)

78. Whitehead, M. P., Shieh, M. T., Cleveland, T. E., Cary, J. W., and Dean, R. A. Isolation and characterization of polygalacturonase genes (pecA and pecB) from Aspergillus flavus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:3316-3322. 1995.

79. Zeringue, Jr., H. Z., Brown, R. L., Neucere, J. N., and Cleveland, T. E. Relationships between C6-C12 alkanal and alkenal volatile contents and resistance to of maize genotypes to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:403-404. 1996.

80. Guo, B. Z., Russin, J. S., Cleveland, T. E., Brown, R. L., and Damann, K. E. Evidence for cutinase production by Aspergillus flavus and its possible role in infection of corn kernels. Phytopathology. 86:824-829. 1996.

81. Chang, P.-K., Ehrlich, K. C., Linz, J. E., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Bennett, J. W. Characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus niaD and niiA gene cluster. Curr. Genet. 30:68-75. 1996.

82. Woloshuk, C. P., Cavaletto, J. R., and Cleveland, T. E. Inducers of aflatoxin biosynthesis from colonized maize kernels are generated by an amylase activity from Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathology. 87:164-169. 1997.

83. De Lucca, A. J., Bland, J. M., Jacks, T. J., Grimm, C., Cleveland, T. E., and Walsh, T. J. Fungicidal activity of cecropin A. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 41:481-483. 1997.

84. Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., Bhatnagar, D., and Cary, J. E. Recent advances in preventing mycotoxin contamination. In Sinha, K. K. and Bhatnagar, D. (eds.), Mycotoxin in Agriculture and Food Safety. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 1997. (Book Chapter).

85. Russin, J. S., Guo, B. Z., Tubajika, K. M., Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., and Widstrom, N. W. Comparison of kernel wax from corn genotypes resistant or susceptible to Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathology. 87:529-533. 1997.

86. Neucere, J. N. and Cleveland, T. E. Antifungal and electrophoretic properties of isolated protein fractions from corn kernels. J. Agricultural and Food Chem. 45:299-301. 1997.

87. Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., Payne, G. A., Woloshuk, C. P., and White, D. G. Growth of an Aspergillus flavus transformant expressing Escherichia coli B-glucuronidase in maize kernels resistant to aflatoxin production. J. of Food Protection. 60:84-87. 1997.

88. Cleveland, T. E., Cary, J. W., Brown, R. L., Bhatnagar, D., Yu, J., and Chang, P.-K. Use of biotechnology to eliminate aflatoxin in preharvest crops. Bulletin of The Institute for Comprehensive Agricultural Sciences, Kin-ki University, Nara, Japan. No. 5, pp. 75-90. 1997. (Bulletin)

89. Shieh, M. T., Brown, R. L., Whitehead, M. P., Cary, J. W., Cotty, P. J., Cleveland, T. E., and Dean, R. A. Molecular genetic evidence for the involvement of a specific pectinase P2C in the invasion and spread of Aspergillus flavus in cotton bolls. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3548-3552. 1997.

90. Guo, B. Z., Brown, R. L., Lax, A. R., Russin, J. S., Mehta, A. D., Selitrennikoff, C. P., Widstrom, N. W., and Cleveland, T. E. Germination induces accumulation of specific proteins and antifungal activities in corn kernels. Phytopathology. 87:1174-1178. 1997.

91. Yu, J., Chang, P.-K., Cary, J. W., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. avnA, a gene encoding a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase, is involved in the conversion of averantin to averufin in aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:1349-1356. 1997.

92. Guo, B. Z., Brown, R. L., Lax, A. R., Cleveland, T. E., Russin, J. S., and Widstrom, N. W. Protein profiles and antifungal activities of kernel extracts from corn genotypes resistant and susceptible to Aspergillus flavus. J. Food Protection. 61:98-102. 1998.

93. Chen, Z.-Y., Brown, R. L., Lax, A. R., Guo, B. Z., Cleveland, T. E., and Russin, J. S. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in corn kernels is associated with a 14 kDa protein. Phytopathology. 88:276-281. 1998.

94. Yu, J., Chang, P.-K., Ehrlich, K. C., Cary, J. W., Montalbano, B., Dyer, J. M., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Characterization of the critical amino acids of an Aspergillus parasiticus cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase encoded by ordA that is involved in the biosynthesis of aflatoxins B1, G1, B2, and G2. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:4834-4841. 1998.

95. Ehrlich, K. C., Montalbano, B. G., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Alteration of different domains in aflR affects aflatoxin pathway metabolism in Aspergillus parasiticus transformants. Fungal Genetics and Biology. 23:279-287. 1998.

96. De Lucca, A. J., Bland, J. M., Grimm, C., Jacks, T. J., Cary, J. W., Jaynes, J. M., Cleveland, T. E., and Walsh, T. J. Fungicidal properties, sterol binding and proteolytic resistance of the synthetic peptide, D4E1. Can. J. Microbiol. 44:514-520. 1998.

97. Brown, R. L., Chen, Z.-Y., Cleveland, T. E., and Russin, J. S. Advances in the development of host resistance to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathology. 89:113-117. 1998. (Review Article)

98. Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., Brown, R. L., Cary, J. W., Yu, J., and Chang, P.-K. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination: Elimination through biotechnology. Review in Ecological Agriculture and Sustainable Development: Biotechnology in Agriculture. Dhaliwal, G. S., Arora, R., Randhawa, N. S., and Dhawan, A. R. (eds.). 100-129. New Delhi, India. 1998. (Review Article)

99. Guo, B., Cleveland, T. E., Brown, R. L., Widstrom, N. W., Lynch, R. E., and Russin, J. S. Distribution of antifungal proteins in maize kernel tissues using immunochemistry. Journal of Food Protection. 62:295-299. 1999.

100. Chen, Z. Y., Brown, R. L., Lax, A. R., Cleveland, T. E., and Russin, J. S. Inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi by a corn trypsin inhibitor overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1320-1324. 1999.

101. Greene-McDowelle, D. M., Ingber, B., Wright, M. S., Zeringue, H. J., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. The effects of selected cotton-leaf volatiles on growth, development and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus. Toxicon. 37:883-893. 1999.

102. Chang, P-K., Yu, J., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E. Repressor-AFLR interaction modulates aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. Mycopathologia. 147:105-112. 1999.

103. Chlan, C., Rajasekaran, K., and Cleveland, T. E. Transgenic cotton. In Y. P. S. Bajaj (ed.), Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry Series, vol. 46, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. pp.283-301. 1999. (Book Chapter)

104. Chang, P.-K., Yu, J., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. The carboxy- terminal portion of the aflatoxin pathway regulatory protein AFLR of Aspergillus parasiticus activates GAL1::lacZ gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 65:2508-2512. 1999.

105. Chen, Z.-Y., Brown, R. L., Russin, J. S., Lax, A. R., and Cleveland, T. E. A corn trypsin inhibitor with antifungal activity inhibits Aspergillus flavus a-amylase. Phytopathology. 89:902-907. 1999.

106. Rajasekaran, K., Chlan, C., Cary, J. W., and Cleveland, T. E. Tissue culture and genetic transformation of cotton. In J. J. Jenkins and S. Saha (eds.). Emerging Technologies in Cotton Breeding. Oxford Press. Accepted for publication June 6, 1999. (Book Chapter)

107. Rajasekaran, K., Cary, J. W., Jacks, T. J., Stromberg, K., and Cleveland, T. E. Inhibition in planta and in vitro of fungal growth by transgenic tobacco expressing a bacterial non-heme chloroperoxidase gene. Plant Cell Reports. 19:333-338. 2000.

108. Klich, M. A. and Cleveland, T. E. Aspergillus systematics and the molecular genetics of mycotoxin biosynthesis. In Pitt, J. I. and Samson, R. A. (eds), Integration of Modern Taxonomic Methods in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification. Harwood, London. pp. 425-434. 2000. (Book Chapter)

109. Rajasekaran, K., Hudspeth, R. L., Cary, J. W., Anderson, D. M., and Cleveland, T. E. High frequency stable transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by particle bombardment of embryogenic cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Reports. 19:539-545. 2000.

110. Cary, J. W., Rajasekaran, K., Jaynes, J. M., and Cleveland, T. E. Transgenic expression of a gene encoding a synthetic antimicrobial peptide results in inhibition of fungal growth in vitro and in planta. Plant Science. 154:171-181. 2000.

111. Chang, P.-K., Yu, J., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Characterization of the Aspergillus parasiticus major regulatory gene, areA. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1491:263-266. 2000.

112. Yu, J., Chang P.-K., Bhatnagar, D, and Cleveland, T. E. Genes encoding cytochrome P450 and monooxygenase enzymes define one end of the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster in Aspergillus parasiticus. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. 53:583-590. 2000.

113. Yu, J., Woloshuk, C., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E. Cloning and characterization of avfA and omtB genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis in three Aspergillus species. Gene. 248:157-167. 2000.

114. Boué, S. M., Carter, C. H., Ehrlich, K. C., and Cleveland, T. E. Induction of the soybean phytoalexins coumestrol and glyceollin by Aspergillus. J. Agrl. Food Chem. 48:2167-2172. 2000.

115. Bhatnagar, D., Cotty, P. J., and Cleveland, T. E. Genetic and Biological Control of Aflatoxigenic Fungi. In C. Wilson (ed.). Microbial Food Contamination, CRC Press. In Press 2000. (Book Chapter)

116. Wright, M. S., Greene-McDowelle, D. M., Zeringue, H. Z., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Effects of volatile aldehydes from Aspergillus resistant varieties of corn on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis. Toxicon. 38:1215-1223. 2000.

117. Yu, J., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Cloning of a sugar utilization gene cluster in Aspergillus parasiticus. Biochim. Biophys Acta. 1493:211-214. 2000.

118. Chang, P.-K., Yu, J., Ehrlich, K. C., Boue, S. M., Montalbano, B. G., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. adhA in Aspergillus Parasiticus is Involved in Conversion of 5'-hydroxyaverantin to Averufin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4715-4719. 2000.

119. Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E., and Payne, G. A. Aspergillus flavus. In Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. Robinson, R. K., Batt, C. A., and Patel, P. D. (eds). pp. 72-79. Academic Press, San Diego. 2000. (Review Article)

120. Guo, B. Z., Widstrom, N. W., Cleveland, T. E., and Lynch, R. E. Control of preharvest aflatoxin contamination in corn: Fungus-plant-insect interactions and control strategies. Recent Research Developments in Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 4:165-176. 2000. (Review Article)

121. Moyne, A.-L., Shelby, R. A., Cleveland, T. E., Tuzun, S. Bacillomycin D: An Iturin with Antifungal Activity Against Aspergillus flavus. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 90:622-629. 2001.

122. Rajasekaran, K., Cary, J. W., Jacks, T. J., and Cleveland, T. E. Genetic engineering for disease resistance: Antifungal proteins/peptides to the rescue. ACTA Horticulturae. (Review Article) (Accepted March 14th, 2001)

123. Guo, B. Z., Li, R. G., Widstrom, N. W., Lynch, R. E., and Cleveland, T. E. Genetic variation within maize population GT-MAS:gk and the relationship with resistance to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production. Theor. Appl. Genet. 103:533-539. 2001.

124. Burow, M. E., Boue, S. M., Collins-Burow, B., Melnik, L. I., Duong, B. N., Carter-Wientjes, C. H., Li, S., Wiese, T. E., Cleveland, T. E., and McLachlan, J. A. Phytochemical glyceollins, isolated from soy, mediate anti-hormonal effects through estrogen receptor alpha and beta. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86: 1750-1758. 2001.

125. Matsushima, K., Chang, P-K., Yu, J., Abe, K., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Pre-termination in aflR of Aspergillus sojae inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 55:585-589. 2001.

126. Widstrom, N. W., Butrón, A., Buo, B. Z., Wilson, D. M., Snook, M. E, Cleveland, T. E., and Lynch, R. E. Control of preharvest aflatoxin contamination in maize through pyramiding resistance genes to ear-feeding insects and invasion by Aspergillus spp. European Journal of Agronomy 19: 563-572. 2003.

127. Butrón, A., Li, R. G., Buo, B. Z., Widstrom, N. W., Snook, M. E., Cleveland, T. E., and Lynch, R. E. Molecular markers to increase corn earworm resistance in a maize population. Maydica 46:117-124.

128. Brown, R. L., Chen, Z.-Y., Menkir, A., Cleveland, T. E., Cardwell, K., Kling, J., and White, D. G. Resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in kernels of maize inbreds selected for ear rot resistance in West and Central Africa. J. Food Protection. 64:396-400. 2001.

129. Brown, R. L., Chen, Z.-Y., Cleveland, T. E., Cotty, P. J., and Cary, J. W. Variation in in vitro α-amylase and protease activity is related to the virulence of Aspergillus flavus isolates. J. Food Protection. 64:401-404. 2001.

130. Chen, Z.-Y., Cleveland, T. E., Brown, R. L., Bhatnagar, D., Cary, J. W., and Rajasekaran, K. Corn as a source of antifungal genes for genetic engineering of crops for resistance to aflatoxin contamination. 2000 ACS Symposium Series. (Accepted January 25, 2001)

131. Moyne, A.-L., Cleveland, T. E., and Tuzun, S. Small peptides with antipathogenic activity, treated plants and methods for treating same. U.S. Patent No. 6,183,736. B1. 2001.

132. Rajasekaran, K., Stromberg, K. D., Cary, J. W., and Cleveland, T. E. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in vitro of the synthetic peptide D4E1. J. Agrl. Food Chem. 49:2799-2803. 2001.

133. Rajasekaran, K., Chlan, C. A., and Cleveland, T. E. Tissue culture and genetic transformation of cotton pp. 269- 290 In: Genetic Improvement of Cotton. Science Publishers Inc, Enfield, NH. 2001. (Book Chapter)

134. Takahashi, T., Chang, P-K., Matsushima, K., Yu, J., Abe, K., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Functionality of Aspergillus sojae aflR in a strain of Aspergillus parasiticus with a disrupted aflR. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. (Accepted with Revision, October 22, 2001).

135. Gembeh, S. V., Brown, R. L., Grimm, C., and Cleveland, T. E. Identification of chemical components of corn kernel pericarp wax associated with resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin production. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 49: 4635-4641. 2001.

136. Brown, R. L., Cleveland, T. E., Woloshuk, C. P., Payne, G. A., and Bhatnagar, D. Growth inhibition of a Fusarium verticillioides GUS strain in corn kernels of aflatoxin- resistant genotypes. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 57:708-711. 2001.

137. Chen, Z.-Y., Brown, R.L., Cleveland, T.E., Russin, J.S., and Damann, K.E. Comparison of constitutive and inducible maize kernel proteins of genotypes resistant or susceptible to aflatoxin production. Journal of Food Protection. 64:1785-1792. 2001.

138. Bhatnagar, D., Brown, R. L., Ehrlich, K. C., and Cleveland, T. E. Mycotoxin contaminating cereal grain crops: their occurrence and toxicity. pp. 171-196. In Applied Mycology and Biotechnology, Vol. 2. Khachatourians, G. G. and Arora, D. K. (eds). (In press). 2002.

139. Bhatnagar, D., Ehrlich, K. C., and Cleveland, T. E. Molecular genetic analysis of aflatoxin biosynthesis and its application to understanding the biological role of aflatoxin. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. (In press) 2002. (Review)

140. Banks, W. A., Niehoff, M. L., Brown, R. L., Chen, Z.-Y., and Cleveland, T. E. Transport across the blood-brain barrier of an antifungal trypsin inhibitor isolated from corn. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Accepted with revision, April 4, 2002).

141. Cleveland, T. E., Rajasekaran, K., Cary, J. W., Chen, Z., Brown, R. L., Bhatnagar, D., and Radin, J. W. Balancing the benefits and potential risks of using biotechnology to enhance resistance in crops to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination. Proceedings of the IX International Symposium on Toxic Microorganisms, Tokyo, Japan, U. S.-Japan Joint Natural Resources Panel on Toxic Microorganisms. 2002. (In press). (Proceedings).

142. Brown, R. L. Chen, Z-Y, Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E. Molecular biology for control of mycotoxigenic fungi. Handbook of Fungal Biotechnology. (In press) 2003. (Review)

143. Cleveland, T. E., Dowd, P. F., Desjardins, A. E., Bhatnagar, D., and Cotty, P. J. Pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in U. S. crops. Pest Management Science ARS Special Issue 59:629-642. 2003. (Review)

144. Chen, Z-Y., Brown, R. L., Damann, K. E., and Cleveland, T. E. Identification of Maize Kernel Embryo Proteins Associated with Resistance to Aflatoxin Contamination Through Proteome Analysis. Phytopathology 92:1084-1094. 2002.

145. Rajasekaran, K., Jacks, T.J., Cary, J.W., and Cleveland, T.E. (2002) Disease-resistant transgenic cotton to prevent preharvest aflatoxin contamination. In: Vasil, I.K. (Ed.) Plant Biotechnology 2002 and Beyond, Proceedings of 10th International Association of Plant Tissue Culture & Biotechnology Congress, Orlando, FL, June 23-28, 2002. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 2002. (Review).

146. Cleveland, T. E., Lillehoj, E. B., and Bhatnagar, D. The Aflatoxins: Historical Overview of Research Benchmarks and Development of Modern Prevention Strategies. Proceedings of the Aflatoxin Threat Assessment Workshop. Department of Central Intelligence, Publisher(Classified). 2002.

147. Yu, J., Chang, P-K., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Cloning and functional expression of an esterase gene in Aspergillus parasiticus. Mycopathologia. (In press). 2003.

148. Boué, S. M., Wiese, T. E., Nehls, S., Burow, M. E., Elliott, S., Carter-Wientjes, C. H., Shih, B. Y., McLachlan, J. A., and Cleveland, T. E. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (In press). 2003.

149. Boué, S. M., Carter-Wientjes, C. H., Shih, B. Y., and Cleveland, T. E. Identification of flavone aglycones and glycosides in soybean pods by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. (In press). 2003.

 

 

I. Boué, S. M.; Carter-Wientjes, C. H.; Shih, B. Y., and Cleveland, T. E. Identification of volatile compounds in soybean at various development stages using solid phase microextraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (In press). 2003.

I. Jacks, T. J., Rajasekaran, K., Cary, J. W., Cleveland, T. E., and Van Pee, H-K. Transformation of plants with a chloroperoxidase gene to enhance disease resistance, S.N. 09/522,401; D.N. 0021.98. 2003.

II. Yu, J., Mohawed, S., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T. E. Substrate-induced lipase gene expression and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Journal of Applied Mycology. (Accepted August 9th, 2003)

III. Yu, J., Proctor, R. H., Brown, D. W., Abe, K., Gomi, K. Machida, M., Hasegawa, F., Nierman, W. C., Bhatnagar, D., and Cleveland, T. E. Genomics of economically significant Aspergillus and fusarium species. Applied Mycology & Biotechnology, An International Series. Volume 4. Fungal Genomics. 4 Elsevier Science B.V. (In press) 2004.

IV. Cleveland, T. E., Yu, J., and Bhatnagar, D. Deciphering the Aspergillus genome for controlling preharvest aflatoxin contamination of crops. Toxin Reviews. (In preparation) 2004.

Cleveland, T. E., Carter-Wientjes, C. H., and Boue, S. M. Effects of roasting temperature on glyceollin content in Aspergillus sojae-treated soybean cotyledons. J. Agrl. Food Chem. (In preparation). 2004.

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