|FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions
- Are reprints available on line?
Yes, go to
- I've heard that forage cut in afternoon often has higher quality then
forage cut the next morning. What is meant by afternoon?
Quality of growing forge increases through out the day beginning at about
1 hour after sunrise and continuing until 1 hour before sunset. The opportunity
window for cutting is centered on this 1-hour before sunset. for example:
sunset is at 9pm and I must cut for 6 hours. So I start at 5pm and continue
after sunset until 11pm to get the best hay.
- What can I do if I must cut around the clock?
For 9pm sunset; stack cuttings of more-sweet hay cut between 2pm and 2am
separately from the less-sweet hay that is cut between 2am and 2pm. One
may find a 15-20% quality difference between sugar levels in the two hays.
- Can animals really tell the difference between hay that is cut in afternoon
from that cut in morning?
Animals, can often sense a hay that has only 0.5% more sugar than another
hay. But sensitivity varies among animals.
- Do cattle and sheep eat more of the sweeter PM-cut hay than that cut in
Yes, animals may eat more of the afternoon cut hay and do so more quickly.
- Does eating the afternoon-cut hay result in more milk production?
Present studies show that dairy cows may eat more of the PM-cut hay and
produce more milk.
- Where do I find out more about benefits of cutting hay in afternoon?
Clues on Cues Used by Grazing Ruminants.
- Do you have any presentations on soil compaction?
"Compaction and Soil Moisture"
download PowerPoint Presentation file) by R.E. Sojka. Topics covered:
- Basic 3-phase Soil Physical Model
- General plant responses to compaction
- Effects of compaction on soil bulk density, strength, moisture, and aeration
- Effects of soil moisture on compaction
- Some data from Alfalfa
- Some management tips
- What do we know about the soil quality concept?
Sojka, R.E., D.R. Upchurch and N.E. Borlaug. 2003.
Quality Soil Management or Soil Quality Management: Performance versus
Semantics. Advances in Agronomy. Volume 79:1-68.
Singer, M.J. and R.E. Sojka. 2002.
Soil quality.p. 312-314. In: E. Geller, et al. (eds). McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science
& Technology, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.
Sojka, R.E. and D.R. Upchurch. 1999.
Reservations Regarding the Soil Quality Concept. SSSAJ Volume 63(5):1039-1054.
Letey, J., R. E. Sojka, D. R. Upchurch, D. K. Cassel, K. R. Olson, W.Payne,
S. E. Petrie, G. H. Price, R. J. Reginato, H. D. Scott, P. J. Smethurst,
and G. B. Triplett. 2003.
Deficiencies in the Soil Quality Concept and its Application. J. Soil Water Conserv. Volume 58(4):180-187.
- I need informaton on PAM, polyacrylamide.
PAMphlet, or search this website for PAM.
- Who can I contact for informaton on PAM, polyacrylamide.
Last Modified: 08/12/2009