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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Adams, C. T., W. A. Banks, and J. K. Plumley. 1976. Polygyny in the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata with notes on the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Florida Entomol. 59: 411-415.

Adams, C. T., J. K. Plumley, C. S. Lofgren, and W. A. Banks. 1976. Economic importance of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. I. Preliminary investigations on impact on soybean harvest. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 11: 165-169.

Adams, C. T., J. K. Plumley, W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1977. Impact of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on harvest of soybeans in North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 93: 150-152.

Adams, C. T., W. A. Banks, C. S. Lofgren, B. J. Smittle, and D. P. Harlan. 1983. Impact of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on the growth and yield of soybeans. J. Econ. Entomol. 76: 1129-1132.

Adams, C. T., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1988. Red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): correlation of ant density with damage to two cultivars of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 905-909.

Avery, S. W., D. P. Jouvenaz, W. A. Banks, and D. W. Anthony. 1977. Virus-like particles in a fire ant, Solenopsis sp., (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Brazil. Florida Entomol. 60: 17-20.

Banks, W. A., C. S. Lofgren, and C. E. Stringer, Jr. 1964. Laboratory evaluation of certain chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides against the imported fire ant. J. Econ. Entomol. 57: 298-299.

Banks, W. A., C. E. Stringer, Jr., W. F. Barthel, and C. S. Lofgren. 1966. Control of imported fire ants with nonachlor. J. Econ. Entomol. 59: 465-467.

Banks, W. A., C. E. Stringer, C. S. Lofgren, N. W. Pierce, and F. J. Bartlett. 1970. Fur-Ag(r): An alternate carrier for soybean oil-mirex bait for control of the imported fire ant. J. Econ. Entomol. 63: 1990-1991.

Banks, W. A., C. E. Stringer, and N. W. Pierce. 1971. Effect of toxicant concentration and rate of application of mirex bait on control of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 6: 205-207.

Banks, W. A., G. P. Markin, J. W. Summerlin, and C. S. Lofgren. 1972. Four mirex bait formulations for control of the red imported fire ant. J. Econ. Entomol. 65: 1468-1470.

Banks, W. A., B. M. Glancey, C. E. Stringer, D. P. Jouvenaz, C. S. Lofgren, and D. E. Weidhaas. 1973. Imported fire ants: Eradication trials with mirex bait. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 785-789.

Banks, W. A., D. P. Jouvenaz, C. S. Lofgren, and D. M. Hicks. 1973. Evaluation of coatings for corncob grit-soybean oil bait used to control imported fire ants. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 241-244.

Banks, W. A., C. S. Lofgren, D. P. Jouvenaz, D. P. Wojcik, and J. W. Summerlin. 1973. An improved mirex bait formulation for control of imported fire ants. Environ. Entomol. 2: 182-185.

Banks, W. A., J. K. Plumley, and D. M. Hicks. 1973. Ploygyny in a colony of the fire ant Solenopsis geminata. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 66: 234-235.

Banks, W. A., D. M. Hicks, J. K. Plumley, D. P. Jouvenaz, D. P. Wojcik, and C. S. Lofgren. 1976. Imported fire ants: 10-5, an alternate formulation of mirex bait. J. Econ. Entomol. 69: 465-467.

Banks, W. A., C. S. Lofgren, C. E. Stringer, and R. Levy. 1977. Laboratory and field evaluation of several organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds for control of imported fire ants. USDA, ARS, ARS-S-169, 13 p.

Banks, W. A., C. S. Lofgren, and J. K. Plumley. 1978. Red imported fire ants: Effects of insect growth regulators on caste formation and colony growth and survival. J. Econ. Entomol. 71: 75-78.

Banks, W. A., C. S. Lofgren, and D. P. Wojcik. 1978. A bibliography of imported fire ants and the chemicals and methods used for their control. USDA, ARS, ARS-S-180, 35 p.

Banks, W. A., H. L. Collins, D. F. Williams, C. E. Stringer, C. S. Lofgren, D. P. Harlan, and C. L. Mangum. 1981. Field trials with AC-217,300 a new amidinohydrazone bait toxicant for control of the red imported fire ant. Southwest. Entomol. 6: 158-164.

Banks, W. A., C. S. Lofgren, D. P. Jouvenaz, C. E. Stringer, P. M. Bishop, D. F. Williams, D. P. Wojcik, and B. M. Glancey. 1981. Techniques for collecting, rearing, and handling imported fire ants. USDA, SEA, AATS-S-21, 9 p.

Banks, W. A., and D. P. Harlan. 1982. Tests with the insect growth regulator, Ciba-Geigy CGA-38531 against laboratory and field colonies of red imported fire ants. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 17: 460-466.

Banks, W. A., D. P. Harlan, and C. E. Stringer. 1982. Effectiveness of emulsions and controlled-release granules of chlorpyrifos and isofenphos on red imported fire ants in cultivated fields. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 17: 259-265.

Banks, W. A., L. R. Miles, and D. P. Harlan. 1983. The effects of insect growth regulators and their potential as control agents for imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 66: 172-181.

Banks, W. A., D. P. Jouvenaz, D. P. Wojcik, and C. S. Lofgren. 1985. Observations on fire ants, Solenopsis spp., in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Sociobiology 11: 143-152.

Banks, W. A., C. S. Lofgren, and D. F. Williams. 1985. Development of toxic baits for control of imported fire ants, pp. 133-143. In T. M. Kaneko and L. D. Spicer [eds.], Pesticide formulations and application systems: 4th Symp., Special Tech. Publ. 875. Amer. Soc. Test. Mater., Philadelphia.

Banks, W. A. 1986. Insect growth regulators for control of the imported fire ant, pp. 387-398. In C. S. Lofgren and R. K. Vander Meer [eds.], Fire ants and leaf cutting ants, biology and management. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Banks, W. A., D. F. Williams, and C. S. Lofgren. 1988. Effectiveness of fenoxycarb for control of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 83-87.

Banks, W. A., and D. F. Williams. 1989. Competitive displacement of Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from baits by fire ants in Mato Grosso, Brazil. J. Entomol. Sci. 24: 381-391.

Banks, W. A. 1990. Chemical control of the imported fire ants, pp. 596-603. In R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe and A. Cedeno [eds.], Applied myrmecology, a world perspective. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Banks, W. A., C. T. Adams, and C. S. Lofgren. 1990. Damage to North Carolina and Florida highways by red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 73: 198-199.

Banks, W. A., C. T. Adams, C. S. Lofgren, and D. P. Wojcik. 1990. Imported fire ant infestation of soybean fields in the southern United States. Florida Entomol. 73: 503-504.

Banks, W. A., C. T. Adams, and C. S. Lofgren. 1991. Damage to young citrus trees by the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 241-246.

Banks, W. A., and C. S. Lofgren. 1991. Effectiveness of the insect growth regulator Pyriproxyfen against the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 26: 331-338.

Banks, W. A., A. S. Las, C. T. Adams, and C. S. Lofgren. 1992. Comparison of several sulfluramid bait formulations for control of the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 27: 50-55.

Bishop, P. M., W. A. Banks, D. F. Williams, C. E. Stringer, J. A. Mitchell, and C. S. Lofgren. 1980. Simple nests for culturing imported fire ants. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 15: 300-304.

Briano, J. A., L. A. Calcaterra, D. P. Wojcik, D. F. Williams, W. A. Banks, and B. S. Patterson. 1997. Abundance of the parasitic ant Solenopsis daguerrei (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in South America, a potential candidate for the biological control of the red imported fire ants in the United States. Environ. Entomol. 26: 1143-1148.

Carlson, D. A., W. A. Banks, and D. P. Wojcik. 1973. Distortion of mirex residues in insects owing to use of isopropyl alcohol as a collection solvent. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9: 365-369.

deShazo, R. D., C. Griffing, T. H. Kwan, W. A. Banks, and H. F. Dvorak. 1984. Dermal hypersensitivity reactions to imported fire ants. J. Aller. Clin. Immunol. 74: 841-847.

deShazo, R. D., B. T. Butcher, and W. A. Banks. 1990. Reactions to the stings of the imported fire ant. New England J. Med. 323: 462-466.

Glancey, B. M., J. C. Nickerson, D. Wojcik, J. Trager, W. A. Banks, and C. Adams. 1987. The increasing incidence of the polygynous form of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Florida. Florida Entomol. 70: 400-402.

Glancey, B. M., and W. A. Banks. 1988. Effect of the insect growth regulator Fenoxycarb on the ovaries of queens of the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 81: 642-648.

Glancey, B. M., W. A. Banks, and M. S. Obin. 1989. The effect of fenoxycarb on alates of the red imported fire ant. J. Entomol. Sci. 24: 290-297.

Glancey, B. M., N. Reimer, and W. A. Banks. 1990. Effects of IGR fenoxycarb and Sumitomo S-31183 on the queens of 2 Myrmicine ant species, pp. 604-613. In R. K. Vander Meer, K. Jaffe and A. Cedeno [eds.], Applied myrmecology: a world perspective. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Harlan, D. P., W. A. Banks, H. L. Collins, and C. E. Stringer. 1981. Large area tests of AC-217,300 bait for control of imported fire ants in Alabama, Louisiana, and Texas. Southwest. Entomol. 6: 150-157.

Jouvenaz, D. P., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1974. Fire ants: Attraction of workers to queen secretions. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 67: 442-444.

Jouvenaz, D. P., W. A. Banks, C. S. Lofgren, and D. M. Hicks. 1974. Antioxidants for corncob grit-soybean oil bait used to control imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 57: 268.

Jouvenaz, D. P., G. E. Allen, W. A. Banks, and D. P. Wojcik. 1977. A survey for pathogens of fire ants, Solenopsis spp., in the Southeastern United States. Florida Entomol. 60: 275-279.

Jouvenaz, D. P., C. S. Lofgren, D. A. Carlson, and W. A. Banks. 1978. Specificity of the trail pheromones of four species of fire ants, Solenopsis spp. Florida Entomol. 61: 244.

Jouvenaz, D. P., W. A. Banks, and J. D. Atwood. 1980. Incidence of pathogens in fire ants, Solenopsis spp., in Brazil. Florida Entomol. 63: 345-346.

Jouvenaz, D. P., C. S. Lofgren, and W. A. Banks. 1981. Biological control of imported fire ants: A review of current knowledge. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 27: 203-208.

Levy, R., Y. J. Chiu, and W. A. Banks. 1973. Laboratory evaluation of candidate bait toxicants against the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Florida Entomol. 56: 141-146.

Levy, R., J. F. Carroll, Y. J. Chiu, and W. A. Banks. 1974. Toxicity of chemical baits against the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Florida Entomol. 57: 155-159.

Lofgren, C. S., V. E. Adler, W. A. Banks, and N. Pierce. 1964. Control of imported fire ants with chlordane. J. Econ. Entomol. 57: 331-333.

Lofgren, C. S., W. A. Banks, and C. E. Stringer. 1964. Toxicity of various insecticides to the imported fire ant. USDA, ARS 81-11, 14 p.

Lofgren, C. S., F. J. Bartlett, C. E. Stringer, Jr., and W. A. Banks. 1964. Imported fire ant toxic bait studies: Further tests with granulated mirex-soybean oil bait. J. Econ. Entomol. 57: 695-698.

Lofgren, C. S., C. E. Stringer, Jr., F. J. Bartlett, W. A. Banks, and W. F. Barthel. 1965. Dual low dosage applications of heptachlor for control of the imported fire ant. Florida Entomol. 48: 265-270.

Lofgren, C. S., C. E. Stringer, W. A. Banks, and P. M. Bishop. 1967. Laboratory tests with candidate bait toxicants against the imported fire ant. USDA, ARS 81-14. 25 p.

Lofgren, C. S., W. A. Banks, and B. M. Glancey. 1975. Biology and control of imported fire ants. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 20: 1-30.

Lofgren, C. S., W. A. Banks, R. K. Vander Meer, and D. F. Williams. 1989. Residual activity of some fluoroaliphatic sulfones to the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol. 72: 140-146.

Obin, M. S., B. M. Glancey, W. A. Banks, and R. K. Vander Meer. 1988. Queen pheromone production and its physiological correlates in fire ant queens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) treated with fenoxycarb. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 81: 808-815.

Smittle, B. J., C. T. Adams, W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1988. Red imported fire ants: feeding on radiolabeled citrus trees. J. Econ. Entomol. 81: 1019-1021.

Stringer, C. E., Jr., W. A. Banks, B. M. Glancey, and C. S. Lofgren. 1976. Red imported fire ants: Capability of queens from established colonies and of newly-mated queens to establish colonies in the laboratory. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 69: 1004-1006.

Stringer, C. E., W. A. Banks, and J. A. Mitchell. 1980. Effects of chlorpyrifos and acephate on populations of red imported fire ants in cultivated fields. J. Georgia Entomol. Soc. 15: 413-417.

Summerlin, J. W., W. A. Banks, and K. H. Schroeder. 1975. Food exchange between mounds of the red imported fire ant. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 68: 863-866.

Vander Meer, R. K., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1996. Repellents for ants. United States Patent 5,587,401, Dec. 24, 1996. 14 p.

Vander Meer, R. K., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1997. Repellents for ants. United States Department of Agriculture patents, July 15, 1997, 5,648,390.

Vander Meer, R. K., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1998. Repellents for ants. United States Patent 5,721,274, Feb. 24, 1998. 16 p.

Vander Meer, R. K., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 2000. Repellent for ants. U.S. Patent; 6,071,973.

Vander Meer, R. K., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 2001. Repellent for ants. U.S. Patent, #6,294,577 B1.

Wheeler, W. B., D. P. Jouvenaz, D. P. Wojcik, W. A. Banks, C. H. Van Middelem, C. S. Lofgren, S. Nesbitt, L. Williams, and R. Brown. 1977. Mirex residues in nontarget organisms after application of 10-5 bait for fire ant control, northeast Florida--1972-74. Pestic. Monit. J. 11: 146-156.

Williams, D. F., C. S. Lofgren, W. A. Banks, C. E. Stringer, and J. K. Plumley. 1980. Laboratory studies with nine amidinohydrazones, a promising new class of bait toxicants for control of red imported fire ants. J. Econ. Entomol. 73: 798-802.

Williams, D. F., and W. A. Banks. 1987. Pseudacteon obtusus (Diptera: Phoridae) attacking Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Brazil. Psyche 94: 9-13.

Williams, D. F., W. A. Banks, R. K. Vander Meer, and C. S. Lofgren. 1991. Red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) control with a corn grit bait of fenoxycarb without soybean oil. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 814-817.

Williams, D. F., W. A. Banks, and C. S. Lofgren. 1997. Control of Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with teflubenzuron. Florida Entomol. 80: 84-91.

Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, D. M. Hicks, and J. K. Plumley. 1972. A simple inexpensive pitfall trap for collecting arthropods. Florida Entomol. 55: 115-116.

Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, J. K. Plumley, and C. S. Lofgren. 1972. Results of laboratory tests with additional candidate bait toxicants against the imported fire ant. USDA, ARS, Insects Affecting Man & Animals Research Lab., Gainesville, Fl. Spec. Rep. 72-03-W, 43 p.

Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, J. K. Plumley, and C. S. Lofgren. 1973. Red imported fire ant: Laboratory tests with additional candidate bait toxicants. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 550.

Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, and W. F. Buren. 1975. First report of Pheidole moerens in Florida (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). U. S. Dep. Agric. Coop. Econ. Insect Rep. 25: 906.

Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, W. B. Wheeler, D. P. Jouvenaz, C. H. Van Middelem, and C. S. Lofgren. 1975. Mirex residues in nontarget organisms after application of experimental baits for fire ant control, Southwest Georgia--1971-72. Pestic. Monit. J. 9: 124-133, 1976. Errata 10: 31.

Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, D. M. Hicks, and J. W. Summerlin. 1977. Fire ant myrmecophiles: new hosts and distribution of Myrmecaphodius excavaticollis (Blanchard) and Euparia castanea Serville (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Coleop. Bull. 31: 329-334.

Wojcik, D. P., W. A. Banks, and D. H. Habeck. 1978. Fire ant Myrmecophiles: Flight periods of Myrmecaphodius excavaticollis (Blanchard) and Euparia castanea Serville (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Coleop. Bull. 32: 59-64.


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