|First Aid Basics|
1 - First Aid Basics
2 - First Aid Kit Checklist
What is first aid? It is simply those things you can do for the victim before medical help arrives. The most important procedures are described below. - By National Ag Safety Database
GET MEDICAL ATTENTION FOR ALL INJURIES
It is very important for you to get immediate treatment for every injury, regardless how small you may think it is. Many cases have been reported where a small unimportant injury, such as a splinter wound or a puncture wound, quickly led to an infection, threatening the health and limb of the employee. Even the smallest scratch is large enough for dangerous germs to enter, and in large bruises or deep cuts, germs come in by the millions.
Immediate examination and treatment is necessary for every injury, and have your Safety Officer fill out a CA-1 form (or any other necessary forms) to document your injury.
A CA-1 form is a "Notice of Injury" should be filed no later than 30 days from the date of injury.
CONTROL BLEEDING WITH PRESSURE
Bleeding is the most visible result of an injury. Each of us has between five and six quarts of blood in our body. Most people can lose a small amount of blood with no problem, but if a quart or more is quickly lost, it could lead to shock and/or death.
Direct pressure is better than a pressure point or a tourniquet because direct pressure stops blood circulation only at the wound.
Once the bleeding stops, do not try to remove the cloth that is against the open wound as it could disturb the blood clotting and restart the bleeding. Only use the pressure points if elevation and direct pressure haven't controlled the bleeding.
Never use a tourniquet (a device, such as a bandage twisted tight with a stick, to control the flow of blood) except in response to an extreme emergency, such as a severed arm or leg. Tourniquets can damage nerves and blood vessels and can cause the victim to lose an arm or leg.
TREAT PHYSICAL SHOCK QUICKLY
Shock can threaten the life of the victim of an injury if it is not treated quickly. Even if the injury doesn't directly cause death, the victim can go into shock and die. Shock occurs when the body's important functions are threatened by not getting enough blood or when the major organs and tissues don't receive enough oxygen. Some of the symptoms of shock are a pale or bluish skin color that is cold to the touch, vomiting, dull and sunken eyes, and unusual thirst.
Shock requires medical treatment to be reversed, so all you can do is prevent it from getting worse.
A victim who is unconscious or bleeding from the mouth should lie on one side so breathing is easier. Stay with the victim until medical help arrives.
MOVE THE INJURED PERSON ONLY WHEN ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY
Never move an injured person unless there is a fire or when explosives are involved. The major concern with moving an injured person is making the injury worse, which is especially true with spinal cord injuries.
If you must move an injured person, try to drag him or her by the clothing around the neck or shoulder area. If possible, drag the person onto a blanket or large cloth and then drag the blanket.
PERFORM THE HEIMLICH MANEUVER ON CHOKING VICTIMS
Ask the victim to cough, speak, or breathe. If the victim can do none of these things:
FLUSH BURNS IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER
There are a many different types of burns. They can be thermal burns, chemical burns, electrical burns or contact burns. Each of the burns can occur in a different way, but treatment for them is very similar.
For thermal, chemical or contact burns, the first step is to run cold water over the burn for a minimum of 30 minutes. (See Figure 6.) If the burn is small enough, keep it completely under water. Fo not use ice.
Do not scrub the burn and do not apply any soap, ointment, or home remedies. Also, do not offer the burn victim anything to drink or eat, but keep the victim covered with a blanket to maintain a normal body temperature until medical help arrives.
Electrical burn treatment is a little different. Do not touch a victim who has been in contact with electricity unless you are clear of the power source. If the victim is still in contact with the power source, electricity will travel through the victim's body and electrify you when you reach to touch. Once the victim is clear of the power source, your priority is:
USE COOL TREATMENT FOR HEAT EXHAUSTION OR STROKE
Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are two different things, although they are commonly confused as the same condition.
Heat exhaustion can occur anywhere there is poor air circulation, such as around an open furnace or heavy machinery, or even if the person is poorly adjusted to very warm temperatures. The body reacts by increasing the heart rate and strengthening blood circulation. Simple heat exhaustion can occur due to loss of body fluids and salts. The symptoms are usually excessive fatigue, dizziness and disorientation, normal skin temperature but a damp and clammy feeling.
Heat stroke is much more serious and occurs when the body's sweat glands have shut down. Some symptoms of heat stroke are mental confusion, collapse, unconsciousness, fever with dry, mottled skin. A heat stroke victim will die quickly, so don't wait for medical help to arrive--assist immediately.
RESPOND APPROPRIATELY TO THE FORM OF POISONING
The first thing to do is get the victim away from the poison. Then use provide treatment appropriate to the form of the poisoning. (See Figure 8.)
Pills or any other solid form - remove it from the victim's mouth using a clean cloth wrapped around your finger. Don't try this with infants because it could force the poison further down their throat.
Gas - you may need a respirator to protect yourself. After checking the area first for your safety, remove the victim from the area and take to fresh air.
Corrosive to the skin - remove the clothing from the affected area and flush with water for 30 minutes. Take the poison container or label with you when you call for medical help because you will need to be able to answer questions about the poison. Try to stay calm and follow the instructions you are given. If the poison is in contact with the eyes, flush the victim's eyes for a minimum of 15 minutes with clean water.
FIRST AID TO HEART ATTACK
Symptoms includes chest pains, difficulty breathing, nausea, sweating, weak rapid pulse. If you suspect a person has suffered a heart attack, search for an identification card or bracelet for additional steps or doctor's telephone number. Question eye witnesses about what has occurred. First aid as follows:
If pulse becomes absent, give CPR if trained and retrieve the facility's AED unit
Use AED (Automated External Defibrillators), only use chest compression when instructed by the AED unit during in-between shock sessions.
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