Land Application of Anionic Polyacrylamide
Department of Natural Resources
Conservation Practice Standard
The land application of products containing water-soluble anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) as temporary soil binding agents to reduce erosion.
The purpose of this practice is to reduce erosion from wind and water on construction sites and agricultural lands.
lll. Conditions Where Practice Applies
This practice is intended for direct soil surface application to sites where the timely establishment of vegetation may not be feasible or where vegetative cover is absent or inadequate. Such areas may include agricultural lands where plant residues are inadequate to protect the soil surface and construction sites where land disturbing activities or winter shutdown prevent establishment or maintenance of a cover crop.
This practice is not intended for application to surface waters of the state as defined by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) ch. NR 102.
lV. Federal, State and Local Laws
Anionic PAM application shall comply with all federal, state, and local laws, rules or regulations governing anionic PAM. The operator is responsible for securing required permits. This standard does not contain the text of the federal, state, or local laws governing anionic PAM.
B. Application Criteria
C. Product Approval Criteria
1. Toxicity test results shall be reviewed by the WDNR and shall receive a written product use restriction. Toxicity test results shall be submitted to: Water Quality Standards Section, WDNR, 101 South Webster St., P.O. Box 7921, Madison, WI 53707,
as a pre-qualification for field testing.
2. Anionic PAM mixtures shall achieve ³ 80% reduction in soil loss as measured by a 1 hour storm duration 2"/hour rainfall simulator test performed in accordance with methods used by Bubenzer and Patterson (1982) as a pre-qualification for field testing.
3. Performance of anionic PAM mixtures shall be verified and field-tested by the WisDOT or other WisDOT-designated facility.
4. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Erosion Control Storm Water – Product Acceptability List Committee (ECSW), will review and approve products as per the process set forth in WisDOT’s PAL. Only products approved for use in Wisconsin may be used. Copies
The following are additional recommendations, which may enhance the use of, or avoid problems with the practice.
G. Application of anionic PAM mixture may not be as effective in the following situations:
H. Visible tracer or colorant to visually track application is recommended.
I. Anionic PAM mixtures may be applied in liquid and granular forms.
J. Application rates of anionic PAM mixtures may need to be adjusted based on soil type, slope, and type of erosion targeted (ie. wind or water). Based on manufacturer’s recommendations, higher application rates may be necessary when applied in granular form.
Erosion control and stormwater plans specifying anionic PAM mixtures for erosion control shall be in keeping with this standard and shall describe the requirements for applying the practice to achieve its intended purpose.
VIII. Operation and Maintenance
Maintenance will consist of reapplying anionic PAM mixtures to disturbed areas, including high use traffic areas, which interfere in the performance of this practice. Anionic PAM mixture may lose its effectiveness in as little as two months due to weather conditions. Anionic PAM mixtures should be reapplied in areas where wind or rill erosion is apparent and whenever an area has been graded, driven upon, or otherwise disturbed since the anionic PAM mixture was last applied.
Bubenzer, G.D., and Patterson, A.E., Intake Rate: Sprinkler Infiltrometer, Method of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Method, Second Edition, Chapter 33, pp. 845-870. (Agronomy Monograph Series #9, 1982).
Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion And Infiltration With Polyacrylamide, Proceedings From First Conference, University of Idaho Miscellaneous Publication No. 101-96, (Kimberly, Idaho, USDA-ARS Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Lab, 1996).
Roa-Espinosa, A., Bubenzer, G.D. and Miyashita, E., Sediment and Runoff Control on Construction Sites Using Four Application Methods of Polyacrylamide Mix, National Conference on Tools for Urban Water Resource Management and Protection, Chicago, February 7-10, 2000, pp. 278- (EPA, 2000).
Roa-Espinosa, A., Bubenzer, G.D. and Miyashita, E.,
Determination of PAM Use in Erosion Control on Construction Sites, 1st Inter-Regional Conference on Environment-Water: Innovative Issues in Irrigation and Drainage, Lisbon, Portugal, September 1998 (Portuguese National Committee of ICID, 1998).
Roa- Espinosa, A., Are there Safety Concerns or Environmental Concerns with PAM? (Dane County Land Conservation Department, 1997).
Sojka, R.E. and Lentz, R.D., "A PAM Primer: A brief history of PAM and PAM related issues," /pamprim.shtml, (Kimberly, ID: USDA-ARS Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Lab, 1996).
Wisconsin Administration Code (Wis.Adm.Code),
Department of Administration, Legislative Reference Bureau, Section 35.84 of the statutes (available at depository public libraries, most law school libraries, and online:http://www.legis.state.wi.us/rsb/code/index.html).
Special recognition goes to Steve Decker of Construction Fabrics & Materials Corp. (CFM). Steve was invaluable during the development of this technical standard because of his extensive field experience, his personal commitment to funding the research for toxicity testing, his vision and his steadfast determination to find an environmentally safe and effective erosion control product.