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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Pearl Millet Diseases - Nematode
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Burrowing nematode Radopholous similis (Cobb) Thorne
Cyst nematode Heterodera gambiensis Merny & Netscher
Dagger nematode Xiphinema americanum Cobb
Lance nematode Hoplolaimus indicus Sher
Panagrolaimus nematode Panagrolaimus spp.
Ring nematode Criconemella ornata (Raski) Luc & Raski
Root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood
            Meloidogyne javonica (Treub.) Chitwood
            Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood
Root lesion nematode Pratylenchus mulchandi Nandakumar & Khera
            Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven
            Pratylenchus zeae Graham
Sting nematode Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau
Stubby-root nematode Paratrichodorus minor (Colbran) Siddiqi
Stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris Upadhyay
            Tylenchorhynchus phaseoli Sethi & Swarup
            Tylenchorhynchus zeae Sethi & Swarup

 

Geographic distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with pearl millet (Table)

 

Burrowing Nematode

Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne

Symptoms:

Symptoms on pearl millet are not described in primary citation. General symptoms on maize include necrotic root lesions, root decay, and moderate stunting (Shurtleff 1980).

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Endoparasitic nematode not described in primary citation. Consultation of other references is advised.

Host range:

"Banana" and "Citrus" races are defined based upon host range. Host range is very wide and includes pearl millet. Also citrus, banana, avocado, sugarcane, rice, black pepper, tomato, hibiscus (Shurtleff 1980). See primary citation for extended list of hosts.

Geographic distribution:

Florida USA (on citrus), Panama, Honduras, India.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

None.

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Koshy and Sosamma 1975)


Cyst Nematode

Heterodera gambiensis Merny & Netscher

Symptoms:

Crop growth is variable and patchy.

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Females form egg sacs and cysts on roots. Brown cysts can be recovered from soil.

Host range:

Pearl millet, sorghum.

Geographic distribution:

Gambia, Niger.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

None.

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Sharma 1990)


Dagger Nematode

Xiphinema americanum Cobb

Symptoms:

Reduced vigor is implied in the primary citation. General symptoms on maize include reduction of feeder roots, root decay, moderate stunting, and chlorosis (Shurtleff 1980).

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Ectoparasitic nematode not described in the primary citation. Consultation of other references is advised.

Host range:

Pearl millet, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. Also other grasses, legumes, sugarcane, cotton, pepper, tomato, citrus, pines, banana (Shurtleff 1980). Consult other references for additional hosts.

Geographic distribution:

USA. Consultation of other references is advised.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

None.

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Johnson and Burton 1973)


Lance Nematode

Hoplolaimus indicus Sher

Symptoms:

Symptoms on pearl millet are not described in the primary citation. General symptoms on maize include root lesions, moderate stunting, chlorosis (Shurtleff 1980).

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Ecto-, semiendo-, and endoparasitic nematode which feeds mainly on cortical tissues. Preference for main roots and rootlets, not root hairs. Nematode feeds with anterior part of body embedded deep into cortical cells. Neither necrosis nor stunting of root has been observed.

Host range:

Pearl millet. Also other grasses, legumes, sugarcane, cotton, pepper, tomato, citrus, pines, banana, others (Shurtleff 1980). Consult other references for additional hosts.

Geographic distribution:

Not defined in the primary citation. Identified on pearl millet in India

Nomenclature discrepancies:

None.

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Nandakumar and Khera 1973)


Panagrolaimus Nematode

Panagrolaimus spp.

Symptoms:

Nematode-infested seed are elongated, with a longitudinal fissure approximately 2/3 the length of one side. There is a small slit on the micropyle of the hilum region. Infested seed are shrivelled, dark grey or greyish-black and weigh less than healthy seed.

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Generally a common soil nematode. Seed can become infested when panicles have been in contact with the soil.

Host range:

Pearl millet, rice

Geographic distribution

India

Nomenclature discrepancies:

None

Seed transmission:

Seed are infested. Fumigation of dry seeds with methyl bromide (32 g/m3) under vacuum for 4 hours does not kill the nematodes, but treatment of hydrated seeds is effective. Infested seeds do not germinate.

Primary citation(s):

(Panchbhai et al. 1987)


Ring Nematode

Criconemella ornata (Raski) Luc & Raski

Symptoms:

Reduced vigor is implied in the primary citation. General symptoms on maize include root lesions, root decay, mild stunting (Shurtleff 1980).

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Ectoparasitic nematode not defined in the primary citation. Consultation of other references is advised.

Host range:

Pearl millet, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. Also other grasses, citrus, apples, peaches, peanut, beans, soybeans, pines, others (Shurtleff 1980). Consult other references for additional hosts.

Geographic distribution:

USA, consultation of other references is advised.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

Synonyms:

Criconemoides ornatus Raski

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Johnson and Burton 1977)


Root Knot Nematode

Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood

Meloidogyne javonica (Treub.) Chitwood

Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood

 

Symptoms:

Root Knot Nematode

Plants can exhibit chlorosis, become stunted, and maturity is delayed. Galls develop on roots.

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Endoparasitic nematode. Not described in the primary citations. Consult other references.

Host range:

Pearl millet, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. Also legumes, cotton, tobacco, tomato, vegetables, strawberry, peach, ornamentals, others (Shurtleff 1980). Consult other references for additional hosts.

Geographic distribution:

USA, India. Consult other references for additional information.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

None.

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Johnson et al. 1977, Vaishnav and Sethi 1978)


Root Lesion Nematode

Pratylenchus mulchandi Nandakumar & Khera

Pratylenchus brachyurus (Godfrey) Filipjev & Schuurmans Stekhoven

Pratylenchus zeae Graham

Symptoms:

Symptoms on pearl millet are not described in the primary citations. Reduced vigor is implied. General symptoms on maize include poor root growth, necrotic root lesions, root decay, moderate stunting (Shurtleff 1980)

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Endoparasitic nematode feeds mainly on rootlets and roots and occasionally on root hairs, rarely on tips of rot cap cell masses. Head region is embedded deep into cortex while feeding on the main roots. Superficial feeding confined to epidermal cells occassionally occurs. Prolonged feeding at the same site did not cause any necrosis on pearl millet roots.

Host range:

Pearl millet, sorghum, sudangrass. Also other grasses and cereals, sugarcane, legumes, tobacco, tomato, potato, strawberry, tree fruits, pines (Shurtleff 1980). Consult other references for additional hosts.

Geographic distribution:

USA, India

Nomenclature discrepancies:

Alternative common name:

Lesion nematode

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Johnson and Burton 1973, Nandakumar and Khera 1973)


Sting Nematode

Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau

Symptoms:

Reduced vigor is implied in the primary citation. General symptoms on maize include root lesions, stubby roots, coarse roots, severe stunting, chlorosis (Shurtleff 1980).

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Ectoparasitic nematode. Consultation of other references is advised.

Host range:

Pearl millet, sorghum, sudangrass. Also other cereals, grasses, cotton, potato, cabbage, legumes, strawberry, celery, pines, others (Shurtleff 1980). Consult other references for additional hosts.

Geographic distribution:

USA, consultation of other references is advised.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

None.

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Johnson and Burton 1973)


Stubby Root Nematode

Paratrichodorus minor (Colbran) Siddiqi

Symptoms:

Symptoms on pearl millet are not described in the primary citation. Reduced vigor is implied. General symptoms on maize include stubby lateral roots, coarse roots excessive upper roots, severe stunting, chlorosis (Shurtleff 1980).

Stubby Root Nemaode

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Ectoparasitic nematode not described in the primary citation. Consult other references.

Host range:

Pearl millet, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. Also other grasses, legumes, cotton, potato, tomato, cabbage, beet, citrus, ornamentals, others (Shurtleff 1980). Consult other references for additional hosts.

Geographic distribution:

USA. Consultation of other references is advised.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

Synonym:

Trichodorus christiei Allen

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Johnson et al. 1977)


Stunt Nematode

Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris Upadhyay

Tylenchorhynchus phaseoli Sethi & Swarup

Tylenchorhynchus zeae Sethi & Swarup

Symptoms:

Stunting in shoots and roots of pearl millet. General symptoms in maize include poor root growth, moderate stunting, chlorosis (Shurtleff 1980).

Pathogen and disease characteristics:

Ectoparasitic nematode. See primary citation for species descriptions.

Host range:

Wide. Includes grasses, cereals, tobacco, cotton, legumes, pepper, tomato, others (Shurtleff 1980).

Geographic distribution:

Not defined in primary citation. Isolated from root zones of pearl millet in India.

Nomenclature discrepancies:

Additional species isolated from pearl millet root zones:

T. brassicae Siddiqi

T. mashoodi Siddiqi & Basir

None.

Seed transmission:

Not seed transmitted.

Primary citation(s):

(Sethi and Swarup 1968)

 


Last Modified: 7/21/2010