Preplanting: Seeds of each accession are received from NSSL, Ft. Collins, Colorado, where they have been selected for freedom from signs and symptoms of pathogens and treated for 30 minutes with sodium hypochlorite (1.58%) at 20-220C. These seeds are isolated from nontreated seeds upon arrival. Prior to planting, an annual disease survey is conducted by a research plant pathologist and a representative of USDA-APH1S-PPQ (Plant Protection and Quarantine Office). Additional surveys are conducted at the discretion of the PPQ Office. Security measures and barriers are established and maintained thereafter to ensure that only authorized personnel have access to the quarantine growing area. These measures verified by the PPQ and ARS inspectors.
Growing season: The PPQ office at Puerto Rico provides personnel to inspect and verify the quarantine status of plants and seeds selected for harvest. ARS personnel conduct and maintain records of inspection and the phytosanitary condition of plant accessions; new diseases and abnormal symptoms are reported by PPQ; crops are managed to maintain low pest levels; and seed heads are bagged prior to anthesi s to reduce the possibility of seed infection. ARS personnel and PPQ inspectors identify or arrange for identification of diseases found during the growing season and take regulatory action when exotic pests of importance are identified.
Harvest: At the time of harvest, ARS and FF0 personnel conduct an inspection of plants before harvesting operations begin. ARS personnel harvest seeds upon receipt of approval from the FF0 and dispose of plants and plant residues from the field by deep plowing. Harvest seeds are packed and processed separately from other seeds. To ensure the effectiveness of this operation, all outgoing seeds are processed at separate physical facilities from incoming seeds. After the packing and processing is appr oved by PPQ, all corn, sorghum and pearl millet seeds are sent to Plant Introduction Stations at Ames, Iowa, and Griffin, Georgia.
Emergency procedures: If symptoms of any of the targeted diseases are observed, samples are immediately taken and processed for identification with PPQ approval. Plants in the affected plots are then removed, and all other plots of that crop are tr eated with a 50-50 mixture of Tilt and Benomyl. The affected plots are covered with a tarpaulin and treated with soil fumigant (VAPAM). If the identification is positive for long smut, all plants in the infected and adjacent plots are destroyed. These plo ts will be treated to reduce the inoculum level and not planted with sorghum for a minimum of three years.
Nonrestricted germplasm: This will be evaluated following normal procedures and will be given priority according to existing facilities and resources. The grow out of these crops should not interfere with the quarantined germplasm plantings. Seed r egenerations of non-quarantined and handling and processing of that seed will follow guidelines provided for by the curator of each crop.