Plant germplasm collections provide researchers with essential genetic variation to develop new varieties that can significantly impact agricultural systems. Germplasm utilization is increased if detailed characterization data is obtained for individual accessions, which should include qualitative and quantitative phenotypic traits, genotypic data, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Detailed characterization data is lacking for more than 50% of the sorghum collection, which emphasizes the need for further data collection. Diseases substantially reduce crop productivity and profitability. Stabilization of production, reduction in chemical usage, and avoidance of disease epidemics can be achieved through the identification of new resistance sources within the germplasm collection. Sources of resistance to anthracnose and grain mold are needed to increase grain production and quality. Viable seed supplies also need to be maintained and accessions with critically low germination or seed quantities need to be regenerated to meet customer needs.