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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Soft Wheat Cultivars
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Welcome to the Soft Wheat Cultivar Description List. Remember to search the page for a specific cultivar if you do not see it listed as it may be a synonym mentioned under another name. All characterized by the Soft Wheat Quality Lab. Descriptions by Lonnie Andrews, Ed Souza, and Anne Sturbaum unless otherwise noted.


    12V51

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar 12V51, tested as VA05W-251, was derived from the cross VA98W-130 // VA96W-348 / Pioneer Brand ‘26R61’ (PI 612153 PVPO). Parentage of VA98W-130 is ‘Savannah’ (PI559929) / VA87-54-558 // VA88-54-328 / ‘GA-Gore’ (PI 561842). Parentage of VA87-54-558 is ‘Massey’ (CItr 17953) / ‘Holley’ (CItr 14579) and parentage of VA88-54-328 is ‘Lovrin 29’ (PI 519144) / ‘Tyler’ (CItr 17899) // ‘Redcoat’ (CItr 13170) *2 / ‘Gaines’ (CItr 13448). Parentage of VA96W-348 is IN81401A1-32-2 / ‘FFR555W’ (PI 560318 PVPO), and parentage of IN81401A1-32-2 is ‘Arthur 71’ (CItr 15282) / ’Caldwell’ (CItr 17897) /4/ Arthur 71 /3/ ’Benhur’ (CItr 14054) // ’Riley’ (CItr 13702) *2 / W62-63-119A.

    Prior to its release, 12V51 was evaluated in seven environments over three years (2008 – 2010) in Virginia’s State Variety Trials. It also was evaluated throughout the soft red winter (SRW) wheat region in the USDA-ARS Uniform Southern SRW Wheat Nurseries (USSRWWN) in 2009 and 2010, and in the Uniform Eastern SRW Wheat Nursery (UESRWWN) in 2011. Cultivar 12V51 is widely adapted, has short plant height, high grain yield potential, and good milling and pastry baking quality. It has expressed moderate to high levels of resistance to the most prevalent wheat diseases in the eastern U.S. with the exception of stripe rust and stem rust. Most notably, 12V51 provides producers in the eastern U.S. with a cultivar having resistance to leaf rust and glume blotch. Breeder seed of 12V51 was planted on 8 acres during fall 2010 and produced 480 Bu of Foundation seed in 2011, which was distributed to seedsmen. Cultivar 12V51 will be marketed by seed companies working in collaboration with Maryland Crop Improvement Association.

    Cultivar 12V51 is a short height semi-dwarf (gene Rht2) that is mid-season maturity, broadly adapted, and high yielding. In the southern SRW wheat region, average head emergence of 12V51 (114 – 118 d) is similar to that of Pioneer Brand 26R61 and one day later than ‘AGS 2000’. Mature plant height of 12V51 (31 – 34 inches) is similar to that of ‘USG 3555’ and 4 to 5 inches shorter than Pioneer Brand 26R61. Straw strength (0=erect to 9=completely lodged) of 12V51 (1.7 – 3.4) is equal to or slightly less than average. In Virginia’s State Variety Trials, 12V51 had a three year (2008-2010) average grain yield (84 Bu/ac) similar (P < 0.05) to that of the highest yielding cultivar Shirley. Cultivar 12V51 had a three year average test weight (58.0 Lb/Bu) that was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than Shirley (57.0 Lb/Bu). Cultivar 12V51 was evaluated at 26 locations in the 2009-2010 USSRWWN, and produced a grain yield (61.8 Bu/ac) that was similar to the nursery average. Cultivar 12V51 ranked among the top ten entries for grain yield at 11 of the 26 locations. In the 2008-09 USSRWWN, 12V51 was evaluated at 25 locations, and ranked seventh among 40 entries for grain yield (67.1 Bu/ac). It ranked among the top ten entries at 13 of the 25 locations. Test weight of 12V51 has been most similar to that of USG 3555. In the 2010-11 UESRWWN, 12V51 was evaluated at 28 locations, and ranked eighth among 38 entries for grain yield (73.3 Bu/ac). On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 3 of 25 locations in the 2008-09 USSRWWN, winter hardiness of 12V51 (4.2) was similar to that of USG 3555 (4.3) and ‘Coker 9553’ (4.0).

    Grain samples of 12V51 produced in six crop environments (2008 – 2010) were evaluated for end use quality by the USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Lab. Cultivar 12V51 has exhibited good milling and pastry baking qualities and overall has superior quality compared to USG 3555. Mean comparisons of milling and baking quality attributes of 12V51 versus USG 3555 include: milling quality score (68.3 vs. 65.7), baking quality score (61.0 vs. 47.4), softness equivalent score (58.3 vs. 62.1), flour yield (69.7% vs. 69.0%), and flour protein (8.2% vs. 8.7%). Gluten strength of 12V51 as predicted by lactic acid solvent retention capacity has been consistently lower (mean of 100.7%) than that of USG 3555 (116.1%). Cultivar 12V51 has consistently produced cookies of larger diameter (mean of 18.76 cm) than USG 3555 (18.30 cm).

    Description by: Carl Griffey

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    2013911

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar 2013911 was derived from the cross Pioneer Brand ‘26R24’ (PI 614110 PVPO) / ‘McCormick’ (PI 632691). Cultivar 2013911 was evaluated in seven environments over three years (2008 – 2010) in Virginia’s State Variety Trials, and was evaluated throughout most of the soft red winter (SRW) wheat region in the USDA-ARS Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nurseries in 2009 and 2010. Cultivar 2013911 is widely adapted, has short plant height, very good straw strength, and high grain yield potential. Cultivar 2013911 has expressed moderate to high levels of resistance to the most prevalent wheat diseases in the eastern U.S. with the exception of stem rust and Hessian fly. Most notably, cultivar 2013911 provides producers in the eastern U.S. with a cultivar having adult plant resistance to stripe rust. In fall 2011, approximately 1,200 Bu of Foundation seed were distributed to seedsmen. Cultivar 2013911 will be marketed by cooperatives affiliated with FFR Cooperative, Battleground, IN.

    Wheat cultivar 2013911 is a short height semi-dwarf (gene Rht2) that is full-season maturity, resistant to lodging, broadly adapted, and high yielding. In the southern SRW wheat region, average head emergence of cultivar 2013911 (118 – 120 d) has been 4 to 6 days later than ‘Coker 9553’. Mature plant height of cultivar 2013911 is 31 to 34 inches and on average is 0.6 inch taller than ‘USG 3555’ and 2 to 3 inches shorter than Coker 9553. On average, straw strength (0=erect to 9=completely lodged) of cultivar 2013911 (0.2 – 0.9) is better than that of USG 3555 (1.2 – 1.8). Cultivar 2013911 was evaluated at 26 locations in the 2009-10 USDA-ARS Uniform Southern SRW Wheat Nursery (USSRWWN), and ranked seventh among 32 entries for grain yield (64.5 Bu/ac). Cultivar 2013911 had a mean test weight (56.8 Lb/Bu) that was most similar to that of USG 3555. Cultivar 2013911 ranked among the top ten entries for grain yield at 15 of the 26 locations. Cultivar 2013911 also was evaluated at 25 locations in the 2008-09 USSRWWN, and ranked fourth among 40 entries for grain yield (68.7 Bu/ac). Cultivar 2013911 ranked among the top ten entries at 12 of the 25 locations. In comparison to the four check cultivars, cultivar 2013911 produced an average test weight (55.1 Lb/Bu) that was most similar to that of USG 3555. On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 3 of 25 locations in the 2008-09 USSRWWN, winter hardiness of cultivar 2013911 (3.9) was similar to that of Coker 9553 (4.0), and better than ‘AGS 2000’ (5.2) and Pioneer ‘26R61’ (5.5).

    Description by: Carl Griffey

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    5187J

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar 5187J, tested as VA05W-151, was derived from the cross Pioneer Brand ‘26R24’ (PI 614110 PVPO) / ‘McCormick’ (PI 632691). Prior to its release, 5187J was evaluated in seven environments over three years (2008-2010) in Virginia’s State Variety Trials. It also was evaluated throughout the soft red winter (SRW) wheat region in the USDA-ARS Uniform Eastern SRW Wheat Nurseries (UESRWWN) in 2009 and 2010 and in the Uniform Southern SRW Wheat Nursery (USSRWWN) in 2011. Cultivar 5187J is widely adapted, early heading, and has high grain yield potential and high test weight. It has expressed moderate levels of resistance to the most prevalent wheat diseases in the eastern U.S. with the exception of stripe rust and Hessian fly. An initial seed purification of 5187J was sown on five acres at the VCIA Foundation seed farm during fall 2010 and produced 400 bu of Foundation seed. Breeder seed also was planted on 1 acre during fall 2010 and produced 60 bu of Foundation seed. Most of this seed was provided to seedsmen in fall 2011, and 5187J will be marketed by Growmark-East and Seedway.

    Cultivar 5187J is a broadly adapted, high yielding, early maturing, short height semi-dwarf (gene Rht2). In the eastern SRW wheat region, average head emergence of 5187J (129 – 135 d) has been similar to ‘Branson’ (129 – 134 d) and 2 to 3 d earlier than ‘Shirley’ and ‘Roane’. Mature plant height of 5187J is 33 to 34 inches and on average is similar to Branson, 1 to 2 inches taller than Roane and Shirley, and 2.5 inches shorter than ‘Bess’. On average, straw strength (0=erect to 9=completely lodged) of 5187J (2.6 – 3.4) is most similar to that of ‘Featherstone 176’ (3.1) and Roane (3.2), but weaker than that of Branson (1.3 – 2.0). Cultivar 5187J was evaluated at 27 locations in the 2009-10 UESRWWN, and produced the highest mean grain yield (72.9 Bu/ac) and second highest test weight (59.4 Lb/Bu) among 46 entries. Grain yields of 5187J were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the test averages at 11 of the 27 locations and ranked among the top ten entries at 20 locations. Cultivar 5187J was evaluated at 28 locations in the 2008-09 UESRWWN, and ranked first among 42 entries for grain yield (83.2 Bu/ac) and second for test weight (59.1 Lb/Bu). Grain yields of 5187J were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the test averages at 9 of the 28 locations and ranked among the top ten entries at 20 locations. In the 2010-11 USSRWWN, 5187J ranked first in grain yield (79.7 Bu/ac) among 28 entries evaluated at 26 locations. On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 5 of 28 locations in the 2008-09 UESRWWN, winter hardiness of 5187J (2.1) was similar to that (2.2 – 2.4) of the check cultivars INW0411, Branson and Bess.

    Grain samples of 5187J produced in four crop environments (2008 and 2009) were evaluated for end use quality by the USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Lab. Cultivar 5187J has exhibited milling and baking qualities that are most similar to those of the strong gluten cultivars Pioneer 26R12, USG 3315, and Tribute; although, 5187J has notably higher gluten strength than these cultivars. Mean comparisons of milling and baking quality attributes of 5187J versus Tribute over two years (2008-2009) include: milling quality score (69.3 vs. 69.6), baking quality score (59.0 vs. 54.4), softness equivalent score (70.3 vs. 65.9), flour yield (70.4% vs. 70.2%), flour protein (7.9% vs. 7.4%), gluten strength (lactic acid retention capacity 120.2 vs. 107.3), and cookie spread diameter (18.64 vs. 18.50 cm). On the basis of quality evaluations conducted on entries in the 2010 and 2009 UESRWWN, 5187J had milling quality scores (69.6 and 64.1) that were similar to those of check cultivars Bess, INW0411, and Shirley (60.1 – 65.5) and higher than that of Roane (57.3). Baking quality scores of 5187J (61.3 and 45.7) were similar to Shirley and better than INW0411 in 2010, but were lower than those of the check cultivars (52.6 – 79.8) in 2009. Softness equivalent scores of 5187J (62.6 and 59.0) were most similar to those of Bess (65.5 and 57.3). Flour yields of 5187J (71.0% and 70.4%) were higher than those of Bess (68.9% and 69.5%) and Roane (68.8%). Flour protein concentration of 5187J (8.5% and 8.8%) was most similar to that of INW0411 (8.6% and 8.9%). Protein gluten strength of 5187J estimated by lactic acid solvent retention capacity (112.8% and 114.7%) was consistently higher than that of INW0411, Branson, Bess, and Shirley (85.4% – 109.5%). Cookie spread diameters of 5187J (18.6 and 18.4 cm) were similar to those of INW0411.

    Description by: Carl Griffey

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    AG 2012

    Soft Red Wheat

    This Ag Alumni soft red wheat had test weight that will average about .5# higher than the reference cultivars and would be similar to Douglas, Patton and Pioneer 25W33. AG 2012 may be higher in protein compared to most cultivars. Gluten strength was medium-strong.

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    AG 2581

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    AG 2581 is a medium height variety normally averaging less than 36 inches in height under good fertility with excellent straw strength. The disease package is quite exceptional which allows it to perform well in all environments found throughout the Soft Red Winter Wheat growing area. It has shown a unique ability to remain one of the top performers under disease attacks of Fusarium, stripe rust and Barley Yellow Virus. Where conditions are favorable and under high fertility levels it has a proven record of performing with, and in many cases, well above the industry leaders. In a word "it works."

    Description by: Agricultural Alumni Seed Improvement Association, Inc.

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    AG1189

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Three years of advanced trials have proven Ag 1189 to be a consistent performer throughout the Soft Red Winter Wheat growing area. It is early, moderate in height, averaging 33-36 inches under a wide range of growing conditions, and soils. It is a very leafy variety with a long, awned head. Ag 1189 has proven its ability to stand up to extremely severe weather conditions of too much rain, not enough rain, high heat during grain fill and to produce acceptable yields under low fertility management. It has high test weight, stands well against high winds near harvest and holds tight its grain when many other varieties tend to shatter high percentages of grain.

    Ag 1189 is a variety that takes advantage of opportunities to produce expected yields. AG2581 is an early, medium height averaging less than 36 inches under good fertility with excellent straw strength. The disease package is quite exceptional which allows it to perform well in all environments. It has shown a unique ability to remain one of the top performers under disease attacks of fusarium, stripe rust and BYDV. Where conditions are favorable and under high fertility levels it has a proven record of performing with and, in many cases, well above the industry leaders. In a word “it works”. INW1021 (02444) has consistently been in the top group of entries in yield. It has Fhb1 (moderate FHB resistance), the Lr37Yr17Sr38 rust resistance linkage block, good soft wheat milling and baking qualities and the Bx70e strong gluten allele; the Rht1 dwarfing allele and the Ppd daylength insensitive allele (one reason for its wide adaptability).

    Plant height is similar to that of Patterson and Bess, it is awnless, has large spikes, tillers well and has moderately strong straw. It has moderate virus, leaf, stem and stripe rusts, powdery mildew, resistance to fusarium head blight, yellow dwarf virus, wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, soilborne mosaic stagonospora nodorum blotch, septoria leaf blotch, and is susceptible to Hession fly biotype L. Typically heads 1 day earlier than Patterson (1 day later than Clark) in southern IN and 1 day later than Patterson (3 day later than Clark) in northern IN (a bit unusual … but probably because it has the Ppd daylength insensitive allele).

    INW0412 ~ Awned has proven to be a real performer in total performance over a wide area. Tall with willowy straw that has proven excellent standability through harvest. Test weight normally runs from 61 to 64 lb. per bushel. Has exceptional winter hardiness, surviving wet, cold, late planted conditions and still producing excellent yields. Tillers profusely and produces long, awned, well filled heads that mature together. A good level of resistance to fusarium head blight, stripe rust, BYDV, powdery mildew, and SBMV. It responds well to all levels of management and while it is tall it stands well and responds with very high yields of high quality, heavy grain. INW0731 has consistent high performance, medium height, typically 35-37 inches tall, good straw strength, early – one day later than Patterson, and is awnless. Excellent pastry-baking qualities. Partial resistance to fusarium, BYDV, leaf rust, SBMV, and wheat spindle streak mosaic. Due to its large root volume and partial BYDV resistance, its performance has been high and conspicuously consistent in all trials.

    Description by: Agricultural Alumni Seed Improvement Association, Inc.

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    AG1331

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Ag 1331 is an early, short to medium height (under 36 inches) variety with a willowy stalk and a long, slightly curved, awnless head with moderately high test weight grain. Ag 1331 has excellent eye appeal in the field with its golden husks and plant uniformity at harvest time. It is well adapted from the Central Mid - South through the Ohio River Valley and from the Western edge to the Northern and Eastern portions of the Soft Red Winter Wheat growing area. Ag 1331 demonstrates good disease tolerance and has very good tolerance to fusarium head blight as well as most leaf and stem rusts. It is moderately susceptible to septoria early, but finishes well with healthy flag and upper leaves. It tillers well under good fertility and has the ability to yield well under limited fertility conditions. It has finished in the upper 20 percentile for three years of advanced testing compared to industry leaders.

    Description by: Agricultural Alumni Seed Improvement Association, Inc.

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    AGI 538

    This cultivar will be about 1 pound higher in test weight compared to the reference cultivars. AGI 538 produced excellent sugar snap cookie size. Gluten strength was average.

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    AgriPro Oakes

    Oakes (03JH000543 or B030543) is a soft red winter wheat bred and developed by Syngenta Seeds, Inc. for grain production. Oakes was derived from a head that was selected in spring of 2001 from a composite F5 bulk population that included a single cross made by Syngenta Seeds, Inc. personnel in the greenhouse at Bay, AR in the spring of 1996. This variety is intended for grain production with grain yield data that indicates it is adapted to most of the mid-south, delta and eastern coast soft wheat areas.

    Oakes is resistant to moderately resistant to stripe rust field races prevalent in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Oakes has shown moderate resistance to moderate susceptibility to leaf rust field races prevalent in the mid-south and southeastern US in 2006, 2007 and 2008. Oakes is moderately susceptible to susceptible to powdery mildew in the southeast. Oakes is moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to Wheat Spindle Streak Virus, Soil Borne Mosaic Virus and Septoria tritici. Oakes is susceptible to Hessian fly.

    Oakes is medium-height wheat with medium season heading. Oakes in 2006 was 84 cm, and in 2008 Oakes was 94 cm which was the same height as Beretta in both years averaging 89 cm. Oakes averages two days earlier than Beretta. Oakes headed four days earlier than Beretta in 2006, and in 2008 it headed one day earlier than Beretta. Juvenile growth habit is semierect. Plant color is green at boot stage. Flag leaf at boot stage is recurved and twisted. Waxy bloom is present on the head, stem and flag leaf sheath. Anther color is yellow. Head shape is tapering and apically awnletted. Glumes are medium in width and short in length with oblique shoulders and obtuse beaks. Seed shape is ovate. Brush hairs are medium in length. Seed cheeks are rounded.

    Description by: June Hancock, Syngenta

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    AgriPro W1104

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    W1104 is a soft red winter wheat bred by Syngenta Cereals (AgriPro business unit) for grain production. W1104 is a relatively short height wheat and is medium maturity with height and heading date similar to Cooper. W1104 has shown resistance to moderate resistance to the soil virus complex (WSBMV/WSSMV in Urbana, IL, ‘08 and ’09). W1104 has shown moderate resistance to the races of leaf rust present in OH, KY and TN in 2007 and 2008. W1104 showed moderate susceptibility to field races of powdery mildew (Mich. ’07). W1104 has shown acceptable milling and cookie baking properties in three years of testing.

    W1104 has shown its best yield response to standard levels of nitrogen fertilizer and does not appear to benefit from very high fertility levels.

    W1104 appears to be best adapted for grain production in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio.

    Description by: Barton Fogleman, AgriPro COKER Syngenta Seeds, Inc

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    AGS 2020

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    AGS 2020 (GA 991336-6E9) is a medium maturing soft red winter wheat that is white chaffed and medium in height. It was derived from the cross GA92432 // AGS 2000 / PIO 26R61. It is similar to AGS 2000 in maturity. GA 991336-6E9 is widely adapted in the Deep South and mid-South area. GA 991336-6E9 is resistant to current biotypes of Hessian fly in Georgia and is resistant to races of leaf rust and stripe rust in the southeast U.S. It is also resistant to Soil-borne Mosaic Virus and powdery mildew.

    AGS 2020 has good milling and baking quality which is similar to AGS 2000. GA 991336-6E9 is equal to AGS 2000 in flour yield (72.6% vs. 73.1%), lower in softness equivalent score (54.9% vs. 58.9%), higher in flour protein (9.6% vs. 8.9%), slightly lower in lactic acid retention (103% vs. 113%) and equal in sucrose retention capacity (95% vs. 94%).

    Description by: Jerry Johnson, University of Georgia

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    AGS 2485

    This cultivar was developed jointly by the University of Georgia and the University of Florida and will be available through the Georgia Seed Development Commission. AGS 2485 appeared to have genetically related test weight slightly lower than the high test weight cultivar Roane. Kernel weight will likely be about average. The cultivar had very good milling properties. Flour granularity will be typical for soft wheat and the sugar snap cookie quality was below average in spread. Gluten strength was slightly above average.

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    Ambassador

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    ‘Ambassador’ (Reg. No. CV-1048, PI 656845, experimental name E0028) is a soft white winter wheat that was released by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station in 2007. Ambassador was selected from the cross of Pioneer ‘2737W’ /D1148 made in 1994 at MSU. Ambassador was released because of its excellent grain yield, flour yield, and good winter hardiness. Its primary weaknesses include low test weight and high susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) and associated deoxynivalenol accumulation. Ambassador is well adapted to Michigan and Ontario, Canada, and has also produced high grain yields throughout the region. The name was chosen because Ambassador’s performance excels in both the United States (Michigan) and Canada (Ontario), bringing together white-wheat growers on both sides of the border.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    American Banner

    Soft White Wheat

    Goldcoin was probably a descendant from the Redchaff or Redchaff Bald wheat mentioned in early agricultural literature. Redchaff was also known as Genesee Redchaff. Genesee Redchaff was a bald, white wheat, first cultivated in the Genesee Valley region in 1798, and for a long time, was the decided favorite. After 1820, however, it was reported to have been very subject to rust and blast, but when circumstances were favorable it was found to be highly productive. Its transfer to other localities was thought to be attended with great success.

    Soules was an early name applied to Goldcoin. Soules was described in the first edition of the New Genesee Farmer in 1840 as being discovered in a field of White Flint by Jonathan Soule, of Perrington (Monroe County), New York. The wheat became well established in New York in the late 1840’s and by 1857 was an important variety in Ohio. About 1897 that wheat or a selection from it became known as New Soules. Soules and New Soules were reported in 1919 from Michigan.

    Clawson, or White Clawson, had been found to be identical with Goldcoin, but the name had a much earlier origin. In 1900, according to Carleton, Clawson was said to have originated in Seneca County, New York, in 1865 through the selection of certain superior heads from a field of Fultz by Garrett Clawson. On planting the grain from the selected heads, both a white-and red-grained sort resulted. A pint of the white wheat produced 39 pounds the following season. Three years later 254 bushels were harvested and distributed to other farmers. In 1871 that variety took first premium at the Seneca County Fair. Though judged inferior by millers at times, this variety had become a very popular one.

    The Goldcoin variety itself was reported by Carlson (1900) to have been produced by Ira M. Green, at Avon, New York, about 1890 in the following manner:

    'Mr. Green grew a field of Diehl Mediterranean, a bearded, red-grained wheat, and while passing through the field one day found a bald head possessing white grains. Planting every grain of this head, he found as a result next season that he had heads with very long beards, some with short beards, and others with none at all. The grain also was mixed, some red and some white. He desired the bald wheat—hence, only the grains from the bald heads were again planted. From this as a beginning, a practically new variety resulted. Various names had been given to it by different seedsmen, but it is best known by the name Gold Coin.'

    By 1919, Goldcoin occupied 947,000 acres in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming. Goldcoin was grown on 892,371 acres in 1929. In 1984, Goldcoin was still being grown on 2,248 acres in Oregon.

    Goldcoin was a popular and widely adapted variety. By 1919, Goldcoin was identified as Abundance, American Banner, Clawson, Eldorado, Fortyfold, Golden Chaff, Gold Bullion, Gold Medal, Goldmine, Improved No. 6, International No. 6, Junior No. 6, Klondike, New American Banner, New Soules, Niagara, Number 6, Oregon Goldmine, Plymouth Rock, Prizetaker, Prizewinner, Rochester No. 6, Soules, Superlative, Twentieth Century, White Century, White Clawson, White Eldorado, White Rock, White Russian, White Soules, White Surprise and Winter King.

    Abundance was a variety apparently identical with Goldcoin, which was introduced by L. P. Gunson & Co., Rochester, New York, about 1894. The variety had been purchased from A. N. Jones.

    American Banner and New American Banner were names under which Goldcoin was best known in Canada. American Banner was identified by J. Allen Clark as being synonymous with Goldcoin.

    American Banner (CI # 6943), Dawson (CI # 3342) and Goldcoin (CI # 4156) were grown together in the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory plots. American Banner

    was very large-kernelled in contrast to Goldcoin and Dawson. The tip awns of American Banner were quite long while the tip awns for Goldcoin were very short. Goldcoin exhibited a clavate spike but American Banner did not.

    Fortyfold was the name under which Goldcoin was distributed by Peter Henderson & Co., seedsmen, of New York City, as early as 1899. Klondike was the name under which the same wheat was distributed by J. M. Thorburn & Co., New York City, in 1908. No. 6 was applied to this wheat by Hickox-Rumsey Seed & Co., Batavia, New York. It was claimed by Mr. Rumsey that the name No. 6 antedated Goldcoin. International No. 6, Rochester No. 6, and possibly Improved No. 6, are names under which the variety was distributed by the International Seed Co., of Rochester, New York. The distribution of the variety under these names seems to date from about 1908. The Junior No. 6 was said to be an improved strain of No.6, but was identical with Goldcoin. It was named and distributed by the Hickox-Rumsey Seed Co.Prizetaker was the name used for the variety by the John A. Salzer Seed Co., of La Crosse, Wisconsin, as early as 1897, and possibly prior to that time.

    Goldcoin was acquired in 1986 and eventually grown with contemporary cultivars in Wooster, Ohio, over several years and was also grown one year by Dr. Mark Sorrells at Cornell University. It was a very good-milling and -baking variety of medium size grain according to 1000-kernel weight. The granularity seemed to be similar to Pioneer 26R46, Mountain AC, AGS 2000, Century II and Sisson. Flour protein was about 1.5 percentage points higher than contemporary cultivars. Even though the flour protein tended to be somewhat high, the sugar snap cookie spread diameter was very large. The gluten strength was very weak.

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    Arcadia

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Arcadia is a white-chaffed soft red winter wheat breed and developed by Syngenta Seeds, Inc. It was initially tested as D05*6441. It is an early maturing, short height semi-dwarf with good test weight patterns. It has moderate resistance to moderate susceptibility to prevalent races of leaf rust and stripe rusts. Arcadia is susceptible to powdery mildew and Hessian fly. Arcadia is moderately susceptible to Septoria tritici. Arcadia has good milling and baking qualities. This variety is intended for grain production.

    Yield testing of Arcadia was initiated in the 2005-2006 season at the F7 generation at 13 locations in the Southern US. Advanced and elite yield testing has been conducted since this time. In 2007 Arcadia was tested at 24 locations and since has been tested in up to 28 locations to determine that Arcadia is adapted to the deep south in the Delta and the East Coast areas. The cross was selected for height, appearance, maturity, and kernel soundness using a bulk breeding method. In 2009, Arcadia was entered in the USDA Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery, and Arcadia (as D04*6441) was tested in state-run official wheat trials in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia in 2009-2010.

    Arcadia has a juvenile growth habit that is semi-erect. Plant color at boot stage is dark green. Flag leaf at boot stage is erect and twisted. Auricle anthocyanin and auricle hairs are present. Waxy bloom is present on the head, stem and flag leaf sheath. Anther color is yellow. Head shape is tapering, middense and awned. Glumes are glabrous, midwide in width and long in length with wanting shoulders and acuminate beaks. Chaff color is white in color. Seed shape is ovate. Seed cheek is rounded. Seed crease depth is shallow and seed crease width is narrow.

    Description by: June Hancock, Syngenta

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    Armor 3235

    The test weight for Armor 3235 will be about 1 pound higher than the reference cultivars found in the normalized test weight tables. Kernel weight was about average and the milling quality was very good. The break flour yield indicated the cultivar to be slightly below average in flour granulation. Gluten strength appeared to be above average.

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    Armour Gold

    Armor GOLD is a new awnletted, medium maturing soft red winter wheat variety that was made available in the fall 2008. It is a medium stature variety with excellent standability and winter hardiness. Armor GOLD has excellent yield potential across soil types, but really stands out on heavier, wetter soils. It has excellent resistance to stripe rust, leaf rust, Septoria leaf blotch, and powdery mildew. It has medium seed size with excellent test weight.

    Description by: John Armstrong, Ohio Seed Improvement Association

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    Aubrey

    Soft White Wheat

    Aubrey is a white cultivar that will likely be about .4 pound higher in test weight than Chelsea and about .4 pound lower than Frankenmuth. Kernel weight was slightly smaller than average. Aubrey had very good milling quality and the flour granularity was softer than the average for soft wheat. Cookie spread was on the smaller side but within the range of good soft wheat. The gluten strength was slightly above average with an Allis-Chalmers lactic acid SRC of 97%.

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    Aurora

    Soft White Wheat

    This white cultivar has the same test weight characteristics as Aubrey, but the kernel weight will be above average. Aurora has good milling quality and average softness. The cookie spread was very large and would place among the top of all soft wheat cultivars. The gluten strength was low as revealed by a lactic acid SRC of 81%.

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    Baldwin

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    BALDWIN (GA 981621-5E34) is a medium-late maturing, awned soft red winter wheat and medium in height with excellent test weight. It was derived from the cross, AGS 2485 and PIO26R61. It maturity is 3 days later than AGS 2000. Baldwin is resistant to races of leaf rust and stripe rust in the southeast U.S. It is also resistant to Soil-borne Mosaic Virus and powdery mildew, and resistant to current biotypes of Hessian fly in Georgia. Baldwin has excellent milling and baking quality. Baldwin is equal to AGS 2000 in flour yield (72.0% vs 71.7%), higher in softness equivalent score (60% vs 56%), equal in flour protein (8.6% vs 8.6%), equal in lactic acid retention (108% vs 107%) and equal in sucrose retention capacity (90% vs 90%).

    Description by: Jerry Johnson, University of Georgia

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    Bascom

    Steyer Seeds marketed this cultivar and will be about 1.3 pounds higher in test weight than the zero-standard cultivars. Bascom had superior milling quality similar to Pioneer 25R47, Caledonia and Fl 302. It has excellent cookie spread. The cultivar has weak gluten strength.

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    Beck 102

    Beck 102 has many good quality traits. It will be about 2 pounds greater in normalized test weight similar to Coker 9803, Elkhart and Kaskaskia. It has good milling properties, possesses very fine flour granulation, good cookie spread and has weak gluten.

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    Beck 110

    Soft Red Wheat

    This soft red cultivar has a 2.5 normalized test weight and would be similar to AGS 2000, Coker 9474 and Geneva. Beck 110 produced good cookie spread and was weak in gluten strength.

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    Beck 113

    BECK 113 is a tremendous new double crop option for the southern part of Beck's marketing area. It heads very early and offers fast dry down for early harvest. It responds to higher seeding populations and offers tremendous standability for great double cropping.

    Description by: Kris Johnson and Brent Minett, Beck's Superior Hybrids

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    Beck 122

    Beck 122 is an exciting yield leader at a medium-early maturity. This variety has had tremendous performance topping originator trials and Beck's strip trials and continuing its great performance in Beck's customer's fields. Beck 122 also earns excellent premiums in Kraft's Quality Premium Program. For excellent grain and straw yields, plant Beck 122.

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    Beck 134

    BECK 134 is a new high yielding product for the Southern and Central portion of Beck's marketing area. This awned product is medium early, stands well, and responds to higher management scenarios. BECK 134 is built for soils with high yield potential and will please you with its yield results.

    Description by: Kris Johnson and Brent Minett, Beck's Superior Hybrids

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    Beck 135

    BECK 135 is the new yield leader in wheat. This awned product is widely adapted and delivers top end performance. BECK 135 stands well and responds to higher management. BECK 135 had a performance advantage over all other varieties tested.

    Description by: Kris Johnson and Brent Minett, Beck's Superior Hybrids

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    Beck 137

    BECK 137 is an improved version of BECK 117. This variety has a similar genetic background and offers a more uniform look and is higher yielding. Place BECK 137 just like BECK 117 and enjoy similar characteristics such as high test weight and tremendous winter hardiness with additional yield.

    Description by: Kris Johnson and Brent Minett, Beck's Superior Hybrids

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    Beck 164

    BECK 164 is a very high yielding stable performer that has excellent resistance to head scab and great winter hardiness. BECK 164 dominated the Central and Northern portions of Beck's Marketing Area in 2007 and is an excellent all-around wheat variety.

    Description by: Kris Johnson and Brent Minett, Beck's Superior Hybrids

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    Beck 87

    BECK 87 is the earliest product in the marketplace. This product heads incredibly early and dries down fast with excellent resistance to Fusarium head scab and excellent test weight. BECK 87 will move double crop potential far to the north and help farmers in the south gain additional soybean yields.

    Description by: Kris Johnson and Brent Minett, Beck's Superior Hybrids

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    Benton

    The AgriPro cultivar had a large kernel size of 38.0 grams and had very weak gluten strength.

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    Beretta

    Soft Red Wheat

    AgriPro produced this soft red cultivar and has test weight that would be similar to the reference cultivars. Reference cultivars would be about 60.0 pounds normalized test weight; Beretta would be about 60.3 pounds normalized. Beretta produced very large sugar snap cookies and the lactic acid SRC (110%) indicated the cultivar may be medium-strong in gluten strength. Additional analysis on other Berettas should be performed since there was no standard cultivar associated with the sample we evaluated.

    Beretta is a soft red winter wheat bred and developed by Agripro Wheat. Beretta is medium-short height wheat with mid-season maturity and strong straw strength. Beretta has shown resistance-to-moderate resistance to the current prevalent races of leaf rust and stripe rust. Beretta has shown moderate susceptibility to the southeastern races of powdery mildew.

    Beretta appears to be primarily adapted to Arkansas and the northern half of Mississippi. Beretta’s area of secondary adaptation will likely include extreme northern Louisiana, western Tennessee and Kentucky, southeastern Missouri, northern Alabama, southern Illinois and the southern tip of Indiana, and western North Carolina.

    Juvenile growth habit is semierect. Plant color is blue-green at boot stage. The flag leaf is erect and twisted. Anther color is yellow. Auricle anthocyanin and auricle hairs are present. Waxy bloom is present on the stem, flag leaf sheath and head. The head is tapering, middense and apically awnletted. The glume at maturity is medium in length and wide in width. Shoulder shape on the glume is square with an obtuse beak. Seed shape is ovate. Brush length is medium and occupies a large area of the seed tip. Seed crease width is narrow and depth is shallow.

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    Besecker

    Soft Red Wheat

    Steyer Seeds released this soft red that will probably average about 1.3 pounds higher in test weight than the 60-pound reference cultivars. Besecker has smaller than average kernel weight and had very good milling quality. Break flour yield was average and cookie spread was good. The lactic acid SRC of 107% was indicative of medium-strong gluten strength.

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    Bess

    Bess was released by the University of Missouri and has test weight that would be about 1.8 pounds greater than the reference cultivars. Daisy, Ernie and Pioneer 25R26 would be examples of reference wheats. Bess has average kernel weight and good milling properties. Break flour yield was average and cookie spread was typical for soft wheat. The lactic acid SRC of 86% would indicate lower than average gluten strength.

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    Bowerman

    Bowerman was introduced by Steyer Seeds and possesses a number of good quality traits. The average normalized test weight was 2.4 pounds higher than the reference cultivars. The kernel weight was large at 38.8 grams and the milling quality was superior. Bowerman would be similar in milling performance to Cardinal, Superior (SWW) and Pearl (SWW). The granularity was very soft and has good cookie spread. The gluten strength was determined to be weak-medium.

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    Branson

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    A medium early, high yielding beardless wheat. Very Good test weight, good standability, very good quality and drydown. It has excellent disease resistance. Disease Data: Scab (MS) Soil Virus (MS), Head Bloch, (M), Leaf Rust (MR), Leaf Bloch (MR), Mildew (MR), Stripe Rust (MR). Branson is a very good no-till variety that replaces Clark for early harvest and has much better yield. Branson is very consistent in multiple environments.

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    Bravo

    ‘Bravo’ is an awnletted, tan-chaffed cultivar with a dark green plant color at boot stage. Bravo’s phenol reaction is 'dark brown' Stems are hollow with 4 notes and show a slight waxy bloom under normal growing conditions.

    Spikes are inclined, oblong in shape and middense, avergting 7.8 cm in length. The last rachis internode is glabrous. Glumes are tan, medium in length and width, glabrous with acute beaks and square shoulders.

    Kernels are elliptical in shape with rounded cheeks. The crease is narrow and mid-deep. The brush is medium and non-collared. Kernels average 7.3 mm in length and 3.9 mm in width. Seed weight is 41 mg.

    Bravo appears similar to ‘Freedom’ (a Title V protected cultivar – PVP Certificate # 9200253). Bravo is similar in height to Freedom and is also similar to Freedom in straw strength as measured by resistance to lodging. However, at maturity, Freedom has a distinct yellow chaff color while Bravo is best described as tan. Bravo also averaged 6 d earlier in maturity than Freedom. In yield trials planted at Wooster, Ohio in 1997, 1998 and 1999, the average yield of Bravo was 739 Kg ha-1 greater than Freedom.

    The USDA Soft Wheat Quality Lab at Wooster, Ohio evaluated Bravo in 1995 and 1996. It was shown to have both excellent milling and excellent baking quality. Baking quality was similar to Freedom in 1995 but milling quality exceeded Freedom in both 1995 and 1996. Straight grade flour yield is similar to Freedom. Tests for softness showed Bravo to be similar to Freedom in 1995 but in 1996, Bravo had a higher softness equivalence score than Freedom.

    Bravo – PVPA 1994 – Title V- May be sold only as a class of Certified Seed. BRAVO is an exclusive release to Central Ohio Seed Testing as a proprietary, Certified cultivar.

    Bravo is a very early heading cultivar, averaging 5 days earlier than Hopewell or Freedom. It has excellent test weight averaging about 2 lbs/bu above Hopewell. It is a beardless, white chaffed cultivar most closely resembling Freedom among current cultivars, but taller and much earlier. Bravo has shown good resistance to leaf rust and excellent resistance to powdery mildew. It aslwo appears highly resistant to soilborne mosaic virus and wheat spindle mosaic virus. Bravo has no resistance to Hessian fly. Milling and baking qualitiy scores for this variety have been excellent. No seed stock sales are permitted to non-licensed companies or to international firms without the permission of the owner of the variety. A license is required to produce seed of this variety.

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    Brazen

    Brazen was released by Gries Seeds and has very soft flour characteristics, good cookie spread and was weak in gluten strength.

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    Bridgeport

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    Pedigree: Caledonia/Cayuga//Caledonia 4-10 (BC1F4 selection). This is the third molecular marker assisted variety developed and released by Cornell.

    Grain Yield: In three years of testing, this line averaged 5 b/a higher grain yield than Jensen, 3 b/a higher than Richland, and 1 b/a below Caledonia.

    Test Weight: Average test weight is similar to Caledonia.

    Winter Hardiness: Winter survival is similar to current varieties.

    Lodging Resistance: NYCal4PHS-10 is similar to Jensen but more susceptible than Caledonia for lodging resistance.

    Disease Resistance: NYCal4PHS-10 is susceptible to Fusarium head blight (scab) but appears to be more resistant than Caledonia. It is resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and Wheat Soil Borne Mosaic Virus. This variety is moderately susceptible to powdery mildew. Reaction to other diseases is unknown.

    Quality Characteristics: NYCal4PHS-10 was evaluated for milling and baking quality in 2006 and 2007 and appears to have excellent milling and baking properties comparable to Caledonia. It is moderately susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting.

    Morphology: Plant height is about 80 cm compared to 77 cm for Caledonia and 88 cm for Richland. This line is awnless and has white chaff color. Heading date similar to Caledonia or Richland.

    Status of Breeder Seed: Ten acres of Breeder seed were planted in the fall of 2008 in Michigan. This line will be offered to the seed industry as an exclusive release variety with Breeder, Foundation, and Certified classes. PVP is pending.

    Name: The name will be determined by selecting among four suggestions from the licensing company.

    Description by: Mark E. Sorrells, Cornell University

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    Caledonia Resel-L

    (Dropped from release) Pedigree: Tall off-type with a less dense spike selected out of Caledonia. Over 4 years, this line is slightly higher in grain yield than Caledonia, Richland, and Jensen. Four year means are 75, 74, 73, 72 b/a for CaledoniaResel-L, Richland, Caledonia, and Jensen, respectively. CaledoniaResel-L has excellent test weight averaging 57.7 lbs/bu over 2 years versus 56.3 lbs/bu for Caledonia and 57.1 for Richland.

    Winter survival is similar to current varieties. CaledoniaResel-L is slightly less lodging resistant compared to Richland or Caledonia. CaledoniaResel-L is more resistant than current varieties to Fusarium Head Blight (scab). It is resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and susceptible to Wheat Soil Borne Mosaic Virus. The powdery mildew resistance is better than most other current varieties except Richland and Jensen. Seedling tests at Virginia Tech show that CaledoniaResel-L is resistant to a powdery mildew composite with virulence for resistance genes Pm1,2,3,3a,3c,3f,4a,4b,5,6,7. CaledoniaResel-L is moderately susceptible to leaf rust race TNRJ. Reaction to other diseases is unknown.

    CaledoniaResel-L has been evaluated for milling and baking quality over four years and produced satisfactory milling and baking scores slightly below Caledonia and Richland but acceptable. It is moderately susceptible to preharvest sprouting with a sprouting score higher than Jensen but lower than other current varieties.

    Plant height is about 103 cm compared to 87 cm for Caledonia and 101 for Richland. This line is awnless and has white chaff color. Heading date about 2 days earlier than Caledonia or Richland.

    Status of Breeder Seed: Breeder seed increases were produced in 2006 and 2007, however 3-5% red kernels were observed in the seed lots produced. NYSIP sent 20 Bu to the Engineering Research Unit at the USDA ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, KS for kernel sorting. They sent back 13.2 bu that had an average of 0.6% red in the sorted sample.

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    Carlisle

    Hard Red Wheat

    C & M Seeds, Canada, released this semi-hard red cultivar. Carlisle has very high test weight that will likely be about 3.5 pounds higher than the reference cultivars which average about 60.0 pounds. Carlisle has extremely large kernel size around 45.1 grams per thousand. Milling quality was superior with an ESI of 7.2%. Very few cultivars of the 767 evaluated by the SWQL will fall into that category. The flour granularity was very coarse and produced small cookie spread. Flour protein may be about 1 percentage point greater than the typical soft wheat. Gluten strength was strong as indicated by the 115% lactic acid SRC. Flour water absorption (57%) was higher than soft wheats.

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    Cecil

    Ohio State University introduced this cultivar that has many good quality traits. Cecil has genetically been about 1.1 pounds higher in test weight when compared to the reference cultivars. The kernel weight was very large at 40.0 grams. Cecil has good milling quality; good cookie spread and was about medium in gluten strength.

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    China

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    There were several differing histories of the origin of China wheat that were recorded in literature, but the following was thought to be the correct history of the variety. In 1851 the Rural New Yorker gave the following account of the origin of China wheat, which appeared for the first time in the Niagara Democrat:

    'The kernels from which they (specimens) grew were originally brought from China some six years ago (1845). The seed was handed to Mr. Caverns by O. Turner, the popular local historian, who obtained them from the then lately returned Minister to China, Honorable Caleb Cushing. From a small quantity received by Mr. Caverns for experiment, an amount sufficient to give it extensive and permanent culture has been received'.

    In 1919, China was grown on 63,900 acres in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. China occupied about 4,800 acres in 1939 and there was no reported acreage by 1949.

    A five-gram sample of China was acquired in the late 1980’s from the National Collection. Thousand-kernel weight was very large at 39.5 grams. China had marginal milling properties with a mill score of 53.6. The range in mill score for all cultivars was 97.8 to 17.9. China had typical soft wheat softness, low AWRC and low flour protein, but produced a small cookie spread. Cultivars that have low milling quality usually yield reduced cookie spread. Gluten strength was medium weak.

    China was also known as Bluestem, Lebanon Valley, Mortgage Lifter and Pennsylvania Bluestem.

    Bluestem and Pennsylvania Bluestem were names widely used for China in the various States where it was grown. A.H. Hoffman, seedsman, of Landisville, Pennsylvania, had distributed the variety in that state under the name ‘Pennsylvania Bluestem.’

    Lebanon Valley was the name under which a sample of China was obtained from R. Chester Ross, of Honey Brook, Pennsylvania, who stated that the variety 'Originated in Lebanon Valley, Pennsylvania.'

    Mortgage Lifter was the name under which a sample of China was obtained from the Cornell University station in 1912.

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    Choptank

    The University of Maryland released Choptank and this cultivar likely will be about 1.3 pounds high in normalized test weight. The cultivar has good cookie spread factor and weak gluten. Preliminary testing indicated that Choptank may be slightly elevated in protein.

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    Coker 9312

    This cultivar would be similar in test weight to Choptank, Cecil and Coker 9663. Coker 9312 has good milling quality and weak gluten. This cultivar may be slightly higher in protein when compared to most cultivars.

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    Coker 9375

    Coker 9375 has a normalized test weight similar to the reference standards. The cultivar has a very large kernel weight of 40 grams. It has very good milling quality and weak gluten.

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    Coker 9436

    This cultivar was released by Syngenta Seeds and limited data suggested that the test weight would be similar to the 60-pound reference cultivars. Coker 9436 has superior milling quality and very coarse flour granularity being similar to Coker 9663, Kristy and Spencer. Sugar snap cookie quality was very good even though the flour was very coarse. Very coarse granulating cultivars can produce excellent cookie spread if the milling quality is excellent. The lactic acid SRC of 80% indicated weaker gluten strength.

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    Coker 9553

    Syngenta Seeds produced this very large kernelled soft wheat cultivar. There was not enough information to evaluate the test weight. It will likely be a very soft granulating cultivar similar to Coker 9184, Hopewell and Pioneer 25R47. Cookie spread may be slightly smaller than the average soft wheat but certainly within the soft wheat range. The lactic acid SRC of 105% would suggest medium-strong gluten.

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    Cooper

    This AgriPro cultivar possesses superior milling properties similar to Honey, Pioneer 25R23 and Southern States 520. Cooper has good sugar snap cookie spread and weak gluten.

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    Coral

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    ‘Coral’, experimental name MSU Line E2017, is a soft white winter wheat developed at Michigan State University (MSU). Coral was selected from breeding population 950302, which was created from a cross in 1995 with the parentage ‘D3913’/’D0331’. In addition to being adapted to Michigan, having good yield and acceptable grain quality, Coral’s strengths include improved resistance to Fusarium head blight (visual), and reduced levels of the Fusarium head blight mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in comparison to many other high yielding white wheats grown in MI. Furthermore, Coral has good test weight, and lacks awns. Its primary weaknesses are susceptibility to powdery mildew and stripe rust.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    Coyote

    Coyote was released by J. G. Limited and has a normalized test weight of 2.4, which would be similar to Coker 984, INW 0101 and USG 3408. Coyote has good milling and the gluten strength was medium.

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    Crawford

    This soft winter wheat was released by the University of Georgia and has a normalized test weight about 1.3 pounds. The gluten strength was about medium.

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    Crestline

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Crestline is a soft red, awnless winter wheat of medium height and very early maturity and high yield. It has excellent winter hardiness and resistance to lodging. Disease resistance is excelllent against Septoria glume blotch, barley yellow dwarf virus and Hessian fly. The cultivar also has very good resistance to powdery mildew, Septoria leaf blotch and soil borne mosaic virus and good resistance to leaf and stem rust. Crestline is a versitile, very early maturing variety with high yield and excellent test weight.

    Description by: Steyer Seed

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    Croplan 594W

    The sample evaluated had been 'weathered' resulting in a reduced test weight and increased break flour yield. Croplan 594W had good milling quality and produced a very large cookie spread, possibly enhanced by the 'weathering'. The lactic acid SRC was 90%, indicative of average gluten strength.

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    Crystal

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    (MSU Line E0027) is a soft white winter wheat, is awned, and is white chaffed. Crystal is similar to Caledonia in height, flowering dates, and lodging resistance. Crystal is moderately resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and powdery mildew. Miag milling data was included in the 2007 Quality Evaluation Council report.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    Cumberland

    This cultivar was developed by the University of Kentucky. There was not enough information in the SWQL test weight data base to accurately assess the test weight, but it may be 2 pounds higher than the 60.0 pound cultivars. The 1000-kernel weight was large at 38.5 grams. Break-flour yield, and cookie spread were normal. Flour protein may be low and the gluten strength appeared to be slightly above average.

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    Dawson

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    Dawson, a soft white winter variety, was originated in 1881 by Robert Dawson, of Paris, Ontario, Canada. According to Mr. Dawson:

    'it was selected in a field of Seneca or Clawson, in which he found one plant quite distinct and much superior to the rest of the crop. Mr. Dawson sowed the grain from this plant and has continued to grow this wheat since. It was practically unknown over Ontario until tested at the experimental station along with many old and new varieties and the comparative results published. It has ranked first in yield from the beginning'.

    Dawson was synonymously known as American Banner, Dawson Golden Chaff, Golden Bronze, Golden Chaff, Improved Amber and White Winter in 1919.

    American Banner was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection and was grown in Wooster, Ohio. American Banner had a similar appearance to that of Dawson, but it had different quality characteristics from those of Dawson.

    Golden Bronze was simply the name under which a strain of this variety was being grown at the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Golden Chaff was a shortening of the name Dawson Golden Chaff.

    Improved Amber was the name under which a sample of Dawson was obtained from the Wisconsin station.

    White Winter was a local description name used for Dawson by farmers.

    Dawson was grown in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and Wisconsin at that time (1919). It was grown on 125,500 acres. By 1944, Dawson was grown on 461,000 acres; but, decreased greatly ten years later to the level of 2,960 acres in 1954.

    Dawson was obtained from the National Small Grains Collection in the late 1980’s by the SWQL. It was grown for a number of years in Wooster, Ohio, along with other historic varieties and today’s contemporary cultivars. Dawson had excellent field yield which equaled the yield of many cultivars that were introduced as late as the 1960’s. Dawson had about 75% of the yield of cultivars from the 1990’s. Dawson had very good milling properties and had typical softness. It seemed to have genetically high test weight, normal flour protein (as compared to modern cultivars), good cookie spread and had low gluten strength.

    AgriPro released a soft red winter cultivar about 2001 named Dawson, which is different from the historical variety Dawson.

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    Declaration

    Declaration was also developed at the University of Kentucky and had normalized test weight that was 2.3 pounds greater than the reference wheats. Kernel weight, break-flour yield and cookie spread appeared to be typical. Declaration may have gluten strength slightly above the average.

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    DK 9108

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    DK 9108 is a very early maturing, high yielding soft red winter wheat variety with excellent early growth and grazing potential. It is an awnless, larger seeded variety with medium test weight. DK 9108 has excellent resistance to stripe rust, leaf rust, Septoria leaf blotch, and powdery mildew. It is medium tall variety with good standability. Grain yields are best in AR, MS, and LA.

    Description by: John Armstrong, Ohio Seed Improvement Association

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    DK 9577

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    DK 9577 is a high yielding, medium early, widely adapted, soft red winter wheat. It is an awnless, medium stature variety that performs from Western Kentucky to Northern Louisiana. DK 9577 has solid resistance to leaf rust and powdery mildew, with moderate resistance to stripe rust and Septoria leaf blotch. It has excellent standability and winter hardiness. It is a small seeded variety with excellent test weight and performs well on all soil types.

    Description by: John Armstrong, Ohio Seed Improvement Association

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    Dominion

    This Virginia line has not been named yet. It has a 1.7 pound normalized test weight and possesses superior milling properties similar to Pioneer 25R47, Jaypee, Pocahontas and Caledonia. The gluten strength was about medium.

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    Douglas

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Douglas was released by AgriPro as a soft red winter wheat. The cultivar displayed very good milling properties and possesses low gluten strength, which may be desirable for formulations requiring high liquid levels.

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    DynaGro Shirley

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar Shirley (VA03W-409) was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25 / ‘Coker 9835’// VA96-54-234. The parentage of VA94-52-25 is CI 13836/9* ’Chancellor’//2* ‘Tyler’/3/2* ‘Massey’/4/‘Hunter’/5/‘Saluda’. The parental line VA96-54-234 is a sib of ‘Sisson’ and ‘Choptank’. Shirley is a broadly adapted, high yielding, short stature, full season soft red winter wheat cultivar that provides producers and end users in the mid-South, mid-Atlantic, Corn Belt, and Northeastern regions of the U.S. with a cultivar that has very good milling and pastry baking qualities. Head emergence of Shirley in the eastern SRW wheat region on average is 0 to 3 days later heading than ‘Roane’. Average plant height of Shirley (32 inches) is 3 inches shorter than SS ‘MPV57’ and 1 to 2 inches taller than ‘Jamestown’. Straw strength (0 – 9 scale) of Shirley (1.5 – 2.0) in the eastern SRW region is better than that of Roane (3.2 – 4.1).

    Shirley Y was evaluated at 22 locations in the 2006-07 USDA-ARS Uniform Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery, and ranked 1st among 44 entries for grain yield (81.2 Bu/ac). Shirley ranked among the top ten entries at 17 of the 22 locations and produced yields that were similar to or significantly higher than the test averages at all 22 locations. Average test weight of Shirley (57.6 Lb/Bu) was similar to those of check cultivars Patton (57.7 Lb/Bu) and INW 0411 (57.3 Lb/Bu). Shirley also was evaluated in this uniform nursery in 2005-06 over 29 locations, and ranked 1st among 46 entries for grain yield (91.6 Bu/ac). Shirley ranked among the top 10 entries at 17 of the 29 locations and produced yields that were similar to or significantly higher than the test average at all replicated test sites. Average test weight of Shirley (56.8 Lb/Bu) was similar to that of check cultivar INW 0411 (56.6 Lb/Bu). On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 9 of the 22 locations in 2007, Shirley had an average score of 2.0 compared to 1.7 for Roane.

    Shirley is resistant to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), stem rust (Puccinia graminis), powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis), Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus, Septoria tritici leaf blotch, Stagonospora nodorum leaf and glume blotches. Shirley is moderately resistant to black chaff (Xanthomonas campestris). It has expressed a moderate level of resistance to Fusarium head blight [Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe)] with disease index scores (0 – 100) ranging from 6.5 to 18 and DON toxin concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 3.1 ppm in Virginia Tech’s inoculated, mist-irrigated FHB nursery. Shirley expresses resistance to Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] biotype C, but is susceptible to biotypes B, D, and L. Shirley is susceptible to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis).

    On the basis of four independent milling and baking quality evaluations over three crop years (2005-2007), Shirley has consistently exhibited very good milling and pastry baking quality. Shirley’s very good milling quality is attributed to its soft grain texture, low endosperm separation indices (8.9%), high break flour yields (32.3 – 32.8%), and high straight grade flour yields (77.7 – 77.9%) on an Allis mill. Flour protein concentrations of SHIRLEY are lower than average ranging from 7.62% to 8.65%, and protein gluten strength is weak on the basis of low Lactic Acid Retention Capacity values ranging from 84.6% to 93.6%. The aforementioned quality attributes of SHIRLEY and the low Sucrose Retention Capacity (87.6% – 90.8%) of its flour contribute to its very good pastry baking quality as exemplified by high values for cookie spread diameter (17.15 – 18.65 cm).

    Description by: Carl Griffey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

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    E5024

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    E5024 is a soft white winter wheat developed at Michigan State University from the cross MSU ‘D6234’ / Pioneer Brand ‘25W33’. It has good yield in Michigan, high test weight, is short, has white chaff and is awned. E5024 has resistance to many diseases, including improved resistance to Fusarium head blight, powdery mildew and stem rust. Data also suggest that E5024 has some improved resistance to PHS and it includes the Vp1 gene.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    Envoy

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    ‘Envoy’, experimental name MSU Line E1009, is a soft white winter wheat developed at Michigan State University (MSU). Envoy was selected from breeding population 950542, which was created from a cross in 1995 with the parentage ‘MSU Line DC076’ / ‘PIONEER 2552’. Envoy is a high yielding soft white winter wheat well adapted to Michigan and Ontario, Canada. In addition to having acceptable grain quality and good yield, Envoy has high testweight, reduced deoxynivalenol mycotoxin accumulation from Fusarium head blight (in comparison with many soft white winter wheats), and is short. Its primary weakness is susceptibility to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    Excel 271

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 271 is a SRWW that was released in 2009 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. It is a large seeded line with its 1000-kernal weight in 2008, an excellent growing conditions year, measuring 42.3 grams and it has exceptional test weight. This line has good resistance to leaf rust, Septoria tritici, stripe rust, and powdery mildew. This line heads two days later than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 286

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 286 is a SRWW distributed by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line was released in 2008. It is a medium-tall wheat. The line is medium early in maturity and heading date is the same as SR30-530J and Branson. It has very good yield potential. This line has good resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and head scab, and is moderately susceptible to powdery mildew and Septoria tritici.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 302

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 302 is a SRWW distributed by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line was first released in 2008. It has very good resistance to Septoria tritici, leaf rust, and powdery mildew. This line is three days later in maturity than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 314

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 314 is a SRWW that was released in 2009 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. It has good resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and head scab and it is winter hardy. It is similar in maturity to SR30-530J and Branson. This line has moderate resistance to powdery mildew, Septoria tritici and head scab.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 328

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 328 is a SRWW that was released in 2009 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. It has very good resistance to BYDV and powdery mildew. This line has moderate resistance to Septoria tritici and leaf rust. The line is moderately susceptible to stripe rust. The line heads four days later than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 336

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 336 is a larger seed SRWW that was released in 2010 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. This line has good test weight and winter hardiness. It has moderate resistance to powdery mildew, Septoria tritici and leaf rust. The line is moderately susceptible to stripe rust. The line heads the same as SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 339

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 339 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and distributed by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line will be released in 2011. The line has the same heading date as BW402 or Branson. It has very good yield potential. This line has good resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and head scab, and is moderately susceptible to Septoria tritici. It has good winter hardiness, shattering resistance and standability.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 341

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 341 is a SRWW distributed by Bio-Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line was first released in 2007. It has very good winter hardiness and is moderately resistant to leaf rust, stripe rust, and Septoria tritici. The line heads two days later than SR30-530J or Branson. This line is moderately susceptible to powdery mildew.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 343

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 343 is a SRWW distributed by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line was first released in 2008. This line has good winter hardiness and is moderately resistant to leaf rust, powdery mildew and Septoria tritici. It is moderately susceptible to stripe rust. It heads three days later than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 410TW

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 410TW is a SRWW distributed by Bio-Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line was released in 2007. This line has good winter hardiness and straw characteristics, as well as a good level of resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust and head scab. It is moderately resistant to powdery mildew and Septoria tritici. This line heads two days later than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 437

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 437 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and distributed by Bio-Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line will be released in 2011. It has very good winter-hardiness. The line is moderately resistant to Fusarium head scab, powdery mildew, stripe rust, and Septoria tritici. The line heads one day later than BW402 or Branson. The line has excellent yield. It is nearly the same height as Branson or Shirley. This line is moderately susceptible to leaf rust. It has good shattering resistance and has very good lodging resistance.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel 446

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel 446 is a larger seed SRWW that was released in 2010 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. This line does particularly well in Ohio and the eastern U.S. It has very good resistance to powdery mildew, Septoria tritici and BYDV. The line is moderately susceptible to stripe rust. It is later maturing wheat, heading five days later than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 188

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 188 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. This line heads one day earlier than Branson or BW402. It yields very well for an early line, and has good test weight and winter hardiness. It has moderate resistance to powdery mildew and black chaff. The line is moderately susceptible to leaf rust. The line has bright golden straw and is the same height as Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 321

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 321 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. It has good resistance to powdery mildew, leaf rust, stripe rust and head scab and has good winter survival. It is similar in maturity to BW402 or Branson. This line is moderately susceptible to Septoria tritici. It is similar in height to Branson and Shirley. It is moderately susceptible to WSSMV.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 329

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 329 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. Excel Exp 329 is moderately resistant to powdery mildew and black chaff. The line is moderately susceptible to leaf rust. It has a larger seed size at 39.2g per TKW. This line heads on the same day as SR30-530J, Branson and BW402. It is the same height as SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 333

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 333 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. It has moderate resistance to powdery mildew, Septoria nodurum and leaf rust. It is moderately susceptible to tritici, scab, stripe rust and WSSMV. The line heads three days later and is two inches shorter than C9553.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 350

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 350 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. It has good resistance to powdery mildew, stripe rust and head scab and has good winter survival. It is similar in maturity to BW402 or Branson. This line is moderately susceptible to Septoria tritici. It is similar in height to Branson and Shirley.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 394

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 394 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. This line is moderately resistant to powdery mildew, and Septoria tritici. It is moderately susceptible to leaf rust and black chaff. This line has stiff straw, and heads one day later than SR30-530J, Branson and BW402. It is three inches taller in height than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 427

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 427 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. This line appears to do best in KY, TN, and MO. It is moderately resistant to WSSMV, leaf rust, Septoria tritici, and black chaff. This line heads one day later than SR30-530J, Branson and BW402. It is four inches taller than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 463

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 463 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. This line has good straw characteristics, as well as a good level of resistance to stripe rust and head scab. It is moderately susceptible to leaf rust and to powdery mildew. This line heads two days later than SR30-530J, Branson and BW402. It is three inches taller than SR30-530J and Branson.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 500

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 500 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and distributed by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. The line is schedule to be released in 2012. It has very good resistance to Septoria tritici, leaf rust, and powdery mildew. This line is three days later in maturity than SR30-530J, Branson and BW402. It is three inches taller than Branson or Shirley, and is moderately susceptible to Fusarium head scab.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 515

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 515 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds and is scheduled to be released in 2012 by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL. It has very good resistance to BYDV and powdery mildew. This line has moderate resistance to black chaff and possesses very bright straw. It is tip awned and ripens early. This line has moderate resistance to Septoria tritici, leaf rust, WSSMV and powdery mildew. It heads four days later than SR30-530J, Branson or BW402. This line is two inches taller than Branson or Shirley.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Excel Exp 525

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Excel Exp 525 is a SRWW owned by Limagrain Cereal Seeds. It is distributed by Bio Plant Research, Ltd. of Camp Point, IL, and is scheduled to be released in 2012. This line has excellent winter hardiness and is moderately resistant to leaf rust and Septoria tritici. It heads three days later than SR30-530J, Branson or BW402. This line has long tip awns, and is three inches taller than Branson or Shirley. This line is moderately susceptible to Fusarium head scab.

    Description by: Jim Peterson and Don Obert, Limagrain Cereal Seeds

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    Fatzinger

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Fatzinger is a soft red, awnless winter wheat with tall height and medium to late maturity. Fatzinger has an excellent test weight, standability and winter hardiness. Fatzinger has very bright straw and great straw yield. This is a very high yielding variety with excellent milling and baking qualities and good resistance to powdery mildew.

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    Featherstone 176

    This release from Virginia Polytechnic Institute will be about 1.5 pounds higher in test weight than the reference cultivars. It has good milling quality, good cookie spread and the gluten was about medium in strength.

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    Feck

    Feck was released by Steyer Seeds and appeared to be about 1.3 pounds greater in test weight than the reference cultivars in the test weight data base. Kernel weight was average. Milling quality was good and flour granularity was normal. Cookie spread was good and flour protein may be a slightly elevated. Gluten strength was strong and had similar lactic acid SRC to Pioneer 25R26.

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    FFR 558

    This cultivar had its beginnings at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Test weight will likely average about 1.3 pounds greater than the reference standards. Flour granularity was average and cookie spread may be slightly smaller. Gluten strength was very weak and had an Allis-Chalmers lactic acid SRC of 66%. The weakest soft wheats probably won’t fall below 60% on average.

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    FS 530

    FS 530 was released by the Illinois Crop Improvement Association. Test weight may be about 1.5 pounds above the reference wheats. Kernel weight and cookie spread were average. Milling quality was very good having a mill score of 75. Flour granularity was extremely fine placing FS 530 in a group with other super-fine granulating cultivars possessing a trait that has been very uncommon. Gluten strength was about medium.

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    Fulcaster

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Fulcaster was one of the most popular and widely grown varieties of soft red winter wheat in the United States. According to Carleton, 'Fulcaster was produced in 1886 by S. M. Schindel, of Hagerstown, Maryland, and is a hybrid between Fultz and Lancaster,' the latter being a synonym for the Mediterranean variety.

    Fulcaster was grown on 2,600,000 acres in 1919 under the name of Fulcaster or as one of its many synonyms in Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia. By 1959, Fulcaster occupied 59,000 acres.

    Numerous synonyms for Fulcaster were identified in 1919 as Acme, Acme Bred, Bearded Bluestem, Bearded Purplestraw, Blankenship, Blue Ridge, Bluestem, Canadian, Champion, Corn, Cumberland Valley, Dietz, Dietz Longberry, Dietz Longberry Red, Ebersole, Eversole, Egyptian Amber, Farmers Friend, Georgia Red, Golden Chaff, Golden King, Greening, Improved Acme, Ironclad, Kansas Mortgage Lifter, Kentucky Giant, Lancaster, Lancaster-Fulcaster, Lincoln, Martha Washington, Michigan Red Line, Moore’s Prolific, Number 10, Price’s Wonder, Red Wonder, Turkish Amber, Tuscan Island and Winter King.

    Stoner was a variety introduced under suspicious circumstances. Because extravagant claims were made about it, there apparently was a desire from many to acquire Stoner and rename it; it became known under many different names. Stoner was identified in 1919 as being Fulcaster. An interesting historical account of Stoner follows near the end of brief descriptions concerning other synonyms. Stoner was also known as Eden, Famine, Forty-to-One, Goose, Half Bushel, Kentucky Wonder, Marvelous, Millennium, Millennium Dawn, Miracle, Multiplier, Multiplying, New Light, New Marvel, Peck, Russellite, Russell’s Wonder, Stooling, Two Peck, Three Peck and Wonderful.

    Acme and Acme Bred were names applied to strains of Fulcaster by S. M. Schindel, seedsman, of Hagerstown, Maryland, about 1911.

    Bearded Bluestem, Bluestem and Bearded Purplestraw were names used for Fulcaster because the variety had purple stems.

    Blankenship was reported in Missouri to be 'very hardy', almost fly-proof, branched well and laid close to the ground in winter.

    Corn was used for Fulcaster in Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania. Corn wheat, however, usually referred to Polish wheat.

    Dietz Longberry was reported to have been originated by George A. Dietz, of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. The earliest record of the wheat was under the name 'Dietz' and was included in variety experiments at the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station in 1884. Dietz was later called Dietz Longberry and subsequently as Dietz Longberry Red. The true origin of Dietz and Fulcaster was somewhat obscure. The former had the earlier published history. However, according to N. Schmitz, formerly of the Maryland AES, Mr. Schindel claimed that Mr. Dietz merely gave the name Dietz Longberry to his Fulcaster wheat. Some wheat reported as Dietz was Mediterranean.

    Georgia Red was the name under which Fulcaster wheat was distributed by H. G. Hastings & Co., seedsmen, of Atlanta, Georgia.

    Lancaster was a name often wrongly applied to Fulcaster wheat. Lancaster-Fulcaster was a name of Pennsylvania origin applied by A. H. Hoffman, seedsman, of Landisville, Pennsylvania, to Fulcaster wheat grown in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Price’s Wonder was the name of a wheat identical to Fulcaster which was distributed for the first time in 1913 by A. H. Hoffman, of Landisville, Pennsylvania. Mr. Hoffman gave the following account of its origin: 'Price’s Wonder was originated by Prof. R. H. Price, of Virginia, who worked with it five years, during which it yielded one-third more wheat than other kinds of wheat growing under like conditions.'

    Red Wonder was the name under which Fulcaster wheat had been distributed by T. W. Wood & Sons, seedsmen, of Richmond, Virginia, since about 1903. The name Red Wonder, however, was recorded for a wheat of unknown character as early as 1892.

    Stoner could not be distinguished from Fulcaster by any character. The history of Stoner was recorded by Ball and Leighty as follows:

    'Stoner originated on the farm of Mr. K. B. Stoner, of Fincastle, near Roanoke, Virginia. It was brought to the attention of the USDA through a letter from Mr. Stoner, dated June 8, 1906. In the spring of 1904 Mr. Stoner noticed a large bunch of grass in his garden; when headed, it proved to be wheat. It had 142 stems, or tillers, and he became impressed with the idea that it was a very wonderful wheat. Just how the kernel of wheat became sown in the garden or from just what variety it came Mr. Stoner does not know. The Fulcaster variety was commonly grown in that section of Virginia, however, and the Bearded Purplestraw less commonly. It is reasonable to suppose, therefore, that the Stoner wheat is a pure line from one of these varieties.'

    Mr. Stoner increased his seed during the two years, 1905 and 1906, and distributed it in 1907, usually under the name 'Miracle'. Many extravagant claims were made for it by Mr. Stoner and agents who handled the seed. Because of those claims it afterwards became known under many other names. During 1911 and 1912 the variety was advertised and sold at $1 a pound by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Brooklyn, New York, under the leadership of 'Pastor' Russell. The names Eden, Famine, Millennium, Millennium Dawn, New Light, Russellite and Russell’s Wonder were the result of the advertising and distribution by 'Pastor' Russell, who claimed the wheat to be a creation in fulfillment of Biblical prophecy which would replenish the earth.

    The name Eden was used to imply that the wheat came from the Garden of Eden. Forty-to-One was the name that became applied to Stoner wheat with the inference that that was the ratio of its increase from the seed sown. The names Half Bushel, Multiplier, Multiplying, Peck, Stooling, Two Peck and Three Peck became widely applied to the Stoner variety on account of the claims made by Mr. Stoner that the wheat had such remarkable tillering or stooling powers that only a small quantity of seed was necessary to sow an acre.

    Marvelous was a name used for Stoner wheat by J. A. Everitt (O. K. Seed Co.), Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1908 and later. Wonderful was the name used for Stoner in Kansas.

    Fulcaster was obtained from the National Small Grains Collection, Beltsville, Maryland, in 1987. Fulcaster yielded about 62% of the yield of the contemporary cultivars with which it was grown in 1999. Its genetic test weight would be about 2 pounds greater than the zero-reference cultivars listed in the normalized test weight tables. The one-thousand kernel weight was large with 37.5 grams. Fulcaster had very good milling properties and average softness. The flour protein was high at 11.4%, but baked sugar snap cookies were of descent spread. The gluten strength for Fulcaster was weak.

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    Fultzo-Mediterranean

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The origin of Fultzo-Mediterranean is not definitely known. Many synonyms were used for the variety, one of which may be the original name. The variety was first distributed as Fultzo-Mediterranean by Everitt’s O. K. Seed Store, Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1898. The variety was evidently named by that firm, and it was claimed by them to have originated from a cross between Fultz and Mediterranean. The following statement concerning its origin was made in their catalogue in 1899:

    'Married.—Two Noble Old Families Joined in Wedlock—Mr. Fultz to Miss Mediterranean. Their first-born is well named, Fultzo-Mediterranean, and is a worthy offspring from Noble Stock.'

    Fultzo-Mediterranean showed no indication of having been derived from Mediterranean, although it had many of the characters of Fultz. Fultzo-Mediterranean was very distinct from Fultz in having very strong stems and erect, dense, clavate spikes. Neither of the alleged parents had the clavate spike of the Fultzo-Mediterranean.

    Fultzo-Mediterranean was grown on 287,900 acres in 1919. In 1949, it occupied 2,010 acres and ten years later was not reported by growers. In 1919, the variety was grown in Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

    Synonyms for Fultzo-Mediterranean in 1919 were; Burrhead, Club, Club Head, Columbia, Double Head, Duck Bill, Early Ontario, Economy, Farmers Pride, Flat Top, Four-Row Fultz, Harper, New Columbia, Scott’s Squarehead, Square Head, Square Top, and Stud Head. Of these, the names Burrhead, Club, Club Head, Double Head, Duck Bill, Flat Top, Square Head, Square Top, and Stud Head were names used for Fultzo-Mediterranean in several of the Eastern States, particularly North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. In that section it was often wrongly referred to as Club wheat.

    The names Columbia and New Columbia were known to be old names for the variety. In fact, New Columbia was

    used for the variety by Everitt in the same year he first distributed it as Fultzo-Mediterranean and evidently also before that time, as the following quotation was from the same catalogue as the quotation about the Noble Families:

    'An Illinois production and first made public the year of the great World’s Fair. Too much cannot be said in its praise for hardiness, vigorous growth, and productiveness. In short, it has great merit and is entitled to be called our national wheat, as it bears our national name. Smooth head, white chaff, plump red grains. Wherever sown it makes friends.'

    New Columbia was reported grown in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, and Tennessee.

    Early Ontario was the name under which wheat similar to Fultzo-Mediterranean was obtained from the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station in 1916. A wheat of unknown characters was obtained under that name by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1902 from William Rennie, seedsman, of Toronto, Canada. Early Ontario was not reported in the varietal survey of 1919.

    Four-Row Fultz was a name under which Fultzo-Mediterranean was advertised and sold by A. H. Hoffman, seedsman, of Landisville, Pennsylvania, and was reported grown in that state. A sample of Four-Row Fultz was obtained from that source in 1913.

    Scott’s Squarehead was the name under which a sample of wheat similar to Fultzo-Mediterranean was obtained from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 1916. Its further history was undetermined and it was not reported in the survey.

    In 1987, a 5-gram sample of Fultzo-Mediterranean (CI # 4811) was acquired from David Smith, curator of the National Small Grains Collection. The variety was grown in Wooster, Ohio, over six seasons. In conjunction with a private industrial research organization, Fultzo-Mediterranean was selected as one of 88 varieties/cultivars, because of specific quality traits, and was grown in three States for the 2003 harvest. The project will continue for at least two more years.

    Fultzo-Mediterranean had fair milling properties similar to the milling quality of Ernie, Hoffman 14, Hopewell and Pioneer 25R18. The 1000-kernel weight averaged 36.6 grams. Flour granularity was typical for soft wheat and similar to that of Coker 9152, Foster and Mallard. Flour protein was about 1 percentage point higher than contemporary cultivars. Sugar snap cookie spread was about 1 cm smaller than most modern soft wheats. Flour protein was not great enough to account for the very small cookies, but there is a tendency for cookie spreads to be smaller as milling quality lowers. AWRC was higher than most soft wheat cultivars, which may, in addition to the lower milling quality, contribute to the small cookie diameter. The variety displayed medium gluten strength.

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    GA 991371-6E12

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    GA 991371-6E12 is a medium maturing soft red winter wheat that is white chaffed and medium in height. It was derived from the cross GA 931521 / *2 AGS 2000. It is similar to AGS 2000 in maturity. GA 991371-6E12 is moderately resistant to current biotypes of Hessian fly in Georgia, including biotype L, and is resistant to races of leaf rust (Lr37) and stripe rust (Yr17). It is also resistant to Soil-borne Mosaic Virus and susceptible to powdery mildew.

    GA 991371-6E12 has good milling and baking quality which is similar to AGS 2000. GA 991371-6E12, in comparison to AGS 2000, is equal in flour yield (71.9% vs. 73.1%), equal in softness equivalent score (57.5% vs. 59.7%), equal in flour protein (8.9% vs. 9.1%), equal in lactic acid retention (115 vs. 110%) and equal in sucrose retention capacity (93% vs. 98%).

    Description by: Jerry Johnson, University of Georgia

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    GA001138-8E36

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    GA 001138-8E36 is a high grain yielding, awned, medium late maturing, good test weight, medium-tall height line with moderate straw strength. It was derived from the cross of GA 961581 / PIO26R61. Its maturity averages about 4 days later than AGS 2000 in Georgia. Juvenile plant growth is semi-erect. At the boot stage, it is blue-green plant color with waxy stems and flag leaves are erect and not twisted. It is resistant to races of leaf rust and stripe rust in Georgia and the Southeast, current biotypes of Hessian fly in Georgia, wheat soil-borne mosaic virus, moderate-resistant to glume blotch, moderate susceptible to fusarium head blight (scab), good milling and baking quality as a soft red winter wheat.

    Description by: Jerry Johnson

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    Gator

    Gator was produced by the Sunbeam Extract Company. The normalized test weight will likely be about 2.2 pounds higher than the reference cultivars. The gluten strength was medium-strong and limited testing revealed that the flour protein may be slightly elevated.

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    Geary

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Geary is a soft red, awnless winter wheat with medium height and maturity, excellent standability and winter hardiness as well as good test weight. Geary is broadly adapted to soils and environment, has good pest resistance to glume blotch, leaf blotch, leaf rust and Soil Borne Mosaic Virus.

    Description by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

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    Genesis 9511

    This cultivar possesses many good quality traits. The kernel weight was large at 39.5 grams. It had superior milling properties similar to Pat, Foster and USG 3650 and the flour granularity was very fine. The cookie spread was good and the gluten strength was medium.

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    Genesis 9821

    Genesis 9821 was released by Genesis Brand around 1998. Limited test weight data indicated it may be slightly higher in test weight than the reference cultivars. Kernel weight, break-flour yield, sugar-snap cookie spread and gluten strength were equal to the average for soft wheats. Flour protein may be lower than protein for most soft wheats.

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    Genesis 9959

    Genesis 9959 was released from Genesis Brand about 1999. Limited test weight history indicated the cultivar may be genetically 1.5 pounds greater in test weight than the standard cultivars designated as '0' or normalized to 60.0 pound test weight. Kernel weight, flour granularity and cookie spread were on average for soft wheat. Milling quality was excellent with a mill score of 80.0. Only 10% of the 830 soft cultivars had mill scores that were at least 80. Gluten strength was slightly above average with Allis-Chalmers lactic acid SRC of 99%.

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    Gipsy

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The origin of Gipsy wheat was undetermined. It was grown in Missouri as early as 1877 and at the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station by 1888. There was a tradition that the name was given the variety because it was first obtained from a gipsy (British variant).

    Gipsy was grown on 122,500 acres in 1919 and only occupied 1,255 acres by 1949. Gipsy was distributed in 1919 in Arkansas, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia.

    Synonyms for Gipsy were Defiance, Egyptian, Farmers Friend, Golden Straw, Grains o’Gold, Gipsy Queen, Lebanon, Niagara and Reliable.

    Defiance was the name under which a wheat practically identical with Gipsy was obtained from the Missouri

    Agricultural Experiment Station in 1913. Defiance probably was wrongly applied to the acquired wheat as the writers were not able to find any other record of such application. Grains o’Gold was a name applied to a mixed lot of wheat by the J. A. Everitt Seed Co. (O. K. Seed Store), Indianapolis , Indiana, that was distributed about 1912. They stated it was originated by E. K. Adams, of Allendale, Illinois. The samples contained a considerable proportion of Gipsy with admixtures of Fulcaster, Fultz and Fultzo-Mediterranean.

    Lebanon was similar to Gipsy though it appeared to have a slightly harder kernel. Its origin was undetermined but had been grown by the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station since about 1893.

    Reliable was a wheat of undetermined origin, practically identical with Gipsy. It was grown by the Ohio Station as early as 1888.

    Gipsy was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection, Beltsville, MD, in 1987 and was grown a few different years with contemporary cultivars of the 1990’s. Gipsy had unusually high test weight averaging about 4 pounds higher than the reference cultivars found in the normalized test weight table. The kernel size was fairly small with 32 grams per thousand kernels. It had very good milling quality with average softness. The cookie spread was respectable considering the average flour protein of 10.4%. Gipsy had weak gluten strength.

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    Gladden

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    In the publication 'Ohio Farmer', in 1920, Professor C. G. Williams of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station stated that Gladden wheat originated from a single head of wheat selected from a field of Gipsy wheat in 1905, and was first grown in 1906 under the number 6100. 6100 was grown in head rows along with Gipsy, Fultz, Poole and other varieties. Head selection 6100 had many of the characteristics of Gipsy wheat, being bearded, having a white chaff and red kernels. Professor Williams consulted the old notebooks from 14 years earlier and found that 6100 was described as 'very erect' in growth, the words were underscored, and given the highest rank for stiffness of straw of any of the Gipsy rows, and as high a rank as any row in the test. Williams indicated that photographs were taken in 1907, 1910, and 1915 which showed more than ordinary stiffness of straw. In-so-far as yield was concerned, Williams stated that it had to stand high from the start or be cast aside. A vast majority of the heads tested were weeded out each year due to ordinary yield.

    In milling and baking tests in 1915 the Gladden showed superior qualities. (The milling test was likely carried out at the Ohio Experiment Station since they had purchased two Allis-Chalmers roll stands in 1909. Milling data gleaned from lab reports from the early 1940’s of the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory confirmed that Gladden was one of the best milling soft wheat varieties in the United States.)

    Williams added that the variety passed along under the name 6100, until 1915, when it was thought best to give it a real name in order to prevent confusion, since it had been distributed quite a little over Ohio. It was named for Washington Gladden, a man who was not associated with agriculture particularly, but he was the most useful citizen Ohio had for many years.

    In 1919, Gladden was grown on about 7,700 acres in Ohio. Gladden had reached its peak by 1924, but was an insignificant variety. By 1949, it was essentially gone from production while Gipsy was still being grown on about 1,255 acres in 1949.

    Gladden was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection in 1986, but did not survive the Ohio winter when grown even though protected. It may be that due to favorable climatic circumstances in the early 1900’s Gladden was not identified as being insufficient for winter hardiness and that may be the reason it did not become a more popular variety. Another request from the National Collection for Gladden in the late 1980’s was not successful since there was limited seed. However, after a recent inquiry, Dr. Harold Bockelman was able to provide a 5-gram sample of Gladden for 2004 fall multiplication.

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    Goens

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The Goens variety, under the names Red Chaff and Red Chaff Bearded, had long been known in the United States. According to John Klippart, who wrote in 1857 an essay on the origin, growth, diseases and varieties of the wheat plant, Goens was 'cultivated in Clermont County, Ohio, for upwards of 50 years.' He further stated that the origin of the name Goens was undetermined. Wheat under the name Goens was first obtained by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1912 from Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station through Cornell University.

    Goens was said to have been introduced into Muskingum County, Ohio, by John Dent in 1808. The Red Chaff wheat mentioned earlier, however, may have actually been the Mediterranean variety as Goens had been said to be a cross between Mediterranean and Gipsy made by a man named Goens in Ohio and afterwards developed by his son.

    The authors apparently wrote to Russell G. East who was the Shelby County agent located in Shelbyville, Indiana, concerning the introduction of the Goens variety (but synonymously named Shelby Red Chaff) into Shelby County, where it was the leading variety. Russell G. East responded:

    'Answering your inquiry regarding Shelby Red Chaff wheat. In 1887, a man named Hall (J.M.Hall) living at Fountaintown, in this county, purchased a carload of seed wheat in Paulding County, Ohio.

    From this start this variety has become the common variety grown throughout the county and has been known locally as Hall, Red Hall, Red Chaff, and Red Chaff Bearded.'

    Goens has purple straw and the spikes tend to shatter more easily.

    In 1919, Goens was grown on 132,600 acres in Indiana, Michigan and Ohio, and under names of synonyms in Illinois and Pennsylvania. Goens was still being grown on more than 110,000 acres in 1949. By 1959, nearly 150 years after its beginnings, Goens was occupying about 7,000 acres.

    Goens, around 1919, was also known as Baldwin, Cummings, Dunlap, Dunlop, Going, Hall, Miller’s Pride, Owen, Red Chaff, Red Chaff Bearded, Red Hall and Shelby Red Chaff. The name Baldwin was used locally for Goens wheat in Madison, Pickaway and Union Counties in Ohio.

    Cummings was the name of a wheat apparently identical with Goens which had been grown for two years in the vicinity of Tippecanoe City, Miami County, Ohio, and constituted 50 per cent of the wheat of that vicinity, according to C. A. Studebaker, of that place.

    Dunlap was the name under which a sample of wheat identical with Goens was obtained from the Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station in 1913. Dunlap or Dunlop was also grown under that synonym for Goens in Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. In Fayette and Rush Counties, Indiana, Dunlap was extensively grown.

    The names Going and Owens were commonly used on Ohio farms for Goens.

    Hall and Red Hall were names used for a wheat identical with Goens in Indiana, particularly in Hancock and Shelby Counties, where it was extensively grown and had been grown for 10 to 15 years. According to J. E. Barrett, of Fortville, Indiana, the variety was named Hall for J. M. Hall, the man who first took the wheat into Hancock County.

    Miller’s Pride was identical with Goens and was grown in Berks County, Pennsylvania. A sample of Miller’s Pride was first obtained by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1912 from Cornell University, which in turn obtained it from the Indiana station.

    Red Chaff and Red Chaff Bearded are old names and were most commonly used for Goens wheat in Indiana, Illinois and Ohio in the early 1900’s. Red Chaff had been reported from several other States, but as that name was used for other varieties, the distribution of Goens wheat as Red Chaff could not be definitely determined.

    Shelby Red Chaff was the name adopted by the farm bureau executive board of Shelby County, Indiana.

    Goens (CI # 4857) was acquired in 1986 from the National Small Grains Collection when it was located at Beltsville, Maryland. Goens was grown in Wooster four different years with a few hundred contemporary cultivars. The yield was about 60% of the modern cultivars. The 1000-kernel weight was quite typical at 35.6 grams. Test weight seemed to be similar to AGS 2000, Century II, Coker 9663 and Pioneer 26R24.

    Goens displayed superior milling properties similar to Beck 108, Daisy, Southern States 520 and Pioneer 25R23. Flour granularity was similar to the cultivars AGS 2000, MacKinnon, McCormick and Roane. Flour protein appeared to be very typical in comparison to modern cultivars even though the field yield was lower. AWRC values were also typical for soft wheat and Goens produced sugar snap cookies with spread diameters that were very large.

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    Gold Drop

    Hard Red Winter Wheat

    Gold Drop was apparently the old English variety usually referred to as Golden Drop. Koernicke and Werner stated that that variety was bred in 1834 by a Mr. Gorrie, at Annat Garden in Great Britain. It had been grown in the United States for many years, being mentioned by Rawson Harmon, of Wheatland, Monroe County, NY, in 1843.

    The wheat was obtained for testing sometime prior to 1919 from Izard County, AR, where farmers stated that it had been grown for at least 25 years. An improved strain of Golden Drop, called Hallet’s Pedigree Golden Drop, was used by Cyrus G. Pringle as one of the parents of Defiance.

    Gold Drop was still being grown in 1919 on about 1,600 acres, nearly 80 years after its introduction to the United States. It was distributed in Arkansas, Missouri and Pennsylvania.

    The only other names for Gold Drop were Golden Drop and Littleton. Littleton was found only in Humphreys County, Tennessee. A bearded spring wheat called Gold Drop was reported in Iowa.

    Gold Drop was acquired from Dr. David Smith, curator, National Small Grains Collection, in 1986. In comparison to contemporary cultivars from the late 1990’s, Gold Drop yielded slightly less than 50%. The normalized test weight placed it in the same category as Roane. It had good milling properties but produced coarse granulating flour. The cookie spread was small likely due to the coarse flour granulation and high average flour protein of 11.1%. Gold Drop had very low gluten strength.

    Sometime during the 1990’s, a Canadian museum curator, who was responsible for restoration of early to mid 1800’s paintings, approached the SWQL concerning the unlikely possibility of acquiring historic wheat varieties that would have been grown during the early to mid 1800’s. They had already exhausted their search in Great Britain and Canada. Flour of that era was utilized in making artists’ paint. The museum had hoped, although they had not expected, to find varieties that were common to the era. Gold Drop was one of the varieties given to the museum by the SWQL. Locating those historic varieties enabled them to formulate paint for 'authentic' restoration purposes.

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    Grandprize

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Grandprize (St. Louis Grand Prize) was originated by A. N. Jones, of Le Roy, New York, between the years 1900 and 1908. It was distributed by Peter Henderson & Company, seedsman, of New York City, in 1910. The wheat derived its name from the fact that Mr. Jones received a grand prize for his cereal exhibit at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904. Grandprize was said to have strong stems and had an unusual characteristic in having pubescent glumes.

    The variety was grown on 34,100 acres in 1919 in Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania. There were about 7,300 acres in 1939 and no reported acreage by 1949.

    Synonyms for Grandprize were Bull Moose, Golden Chaff, New Genesee and Velvet Head.

    Bull Moose was a name used only in Crawford County, Illinois.

    Golden Chaff was a name used for Grandprize in Indiana. New Genesee was the name under which a wheat similar to Grandprize was obtained from the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, Madison, Wisconsin in 1917. Its origin was not known and was not pure. New Genesee was not known to be commercially grown. Velvet Head was a name used for Grandprize in Kentucky.

    A sample of Grandprize was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection and multiplied. Milling quality was very good and similar to Caldwell, Douglas, Sisson and Stine 454. Grandprize had very soft kernel texture, low protein, low AWRC and good cookie spread. The gluten strength was not able to be ascertained on the mixograph since flour protein was low.

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    Greeson

    Soft White Wheat

    The history of the soft white variety Greeson had been recorded by J. T. Wagoner, county agent of Guilford County, North Carolina. It stated that George Greeson of that county found a plant of wheat growing beside an old stump in his apple orchid in 1896. He increased the seed and distributed it under the name Wild Goose. After Mr. Greeson’s death in 1899, the variety was called Greeson.

    Another account by W. H. McLean, of Whitsett, North Carolina, stated the variety originated by a man whose name was Greeson, and had been grown in Guilford County for a number of years and was very popular. He reported that it constituted 40 per cent of the wheat grown near Whitsett, Guilford County, North Carolina, in 1919. Greeson, in 1919, was grown in Chatham, Randolph and Guilford Counties, North Carolina on about 5,100 acres. Its peak was between 1924 and 1944 likely averaging around 10,000 acres each year. In 1959, Greeson was grown on about 300 acres.

    Synonyms for Greeson were Greensboro and Gleason.

    Seed of Greeson was obtained at a fair held at Greensboro, North Carolina, and therefore became known as Greensboro. Greensboro became widely grown in Randolph County, North Carolina.

    No information could be found concerning Gleason but was likely a mispronunciation of Greeson.

    In the late 1980’s, Greeson was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection. It was very large-kernelled at 40.6 grams. Mean quality data for two crop years indicated that Greeson had superior milling properties.

    Greeson was rather coarse in granulation and had flour protein of 10.1%. Nearly always, superior milling cultivars/varieties produce large cookie spread even though flour protein may be elevated. However, Greeson yielded small sugar snap cookies. AWRC was typical for soft wheat. Gluten strength was medium weak.

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    Hanover

    Hard Red Winter Wheat

    This cultivar would seem to be a hard red winter wheat after milling evaluation at the Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory. Hanover has outstanding milling characteristics and appeared to be about medium-strong in gluten strength based on lactic acid evaluation. Hanover was about 2 percentage points higher in protein than the reference cultivars.

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    Hartman

    Hartman was introduced by Steyer Seeds and will likely have test weight that will be about 1.4 pounds greater than the reference cultivars. The kernel weight appeared to slightly larger than average and Croplan 594W has very good milling quality. The flour granularity will be about average and the cookie spread was typical for soft wheat. Gluten strength will probably be medium-strong.

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    Heilman

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Heilman is a soft red, medium tall, awnless winter wheat with medium to early maturity. It has excellent winter hardiness, resistance to lodging and test weight. Crestline has excellent resistance to leaf rust and powdery mildew and very good resistance to stem rust, Septoria glume and leaf blotch and good resistance to soil borne mosaic virus, barley yellow dwarf virus and Hessian fly. Heilman provides outstanding grain and straw yields with a great disease package and wide geographic adaptability.

    Description by: Steyer Seed

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    Hondo

    Hondo, an AgriPro wheat, has been on the market for a few years but may not be available for general production. It seemed to have high test weight that would place it in the same category as Coker 9184, McCormick and Roane. Hondo has very good milling properties and very coarse flour granulation. Flour protein may be about 1 percentage point higher than soft wheat. Flour water absorption was 62% as measured by the water retention capacity test. Lactic acid SRC was 120% indicating the gluten strength to be strong.

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    Hopewell

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Hopewell is a soft red winter wheat variety developed by the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. It was released in 1994 because of its high yields, diverse genetics, disease tolerance, standability and medium maturity. Hopewell is beardless and has red chaff at maturity. It is moderately resistant to Septoria nodorum, but carries no Hession Fly resistance gene.

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    Hopkins

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    Pedigree: NY7387/Caledonia//Caledonia-2///Caledonia 9-10 (BC2F4 selection). This is the first molecular marker assisted variety developed and released by Cornell.

    Grain Yield: In three years of testing, this line averaged 4 b/a higher grain yield than Jensen, 2 b/a higher than Richland, and 2 b/a below Caledonia.

    Test Weight: Average test weight is similar to Caledonia.

    Winter Hardiness: Winter survival is similar to current varieties.

    Lodging Resistance: NY03180FHB-10 is similar to Jensen but more susceptible than Caledonia or Richland for lodging resistance.

    Disease Resistance: NY03180FHB-10 is much more resistant to Fusarium head blight (scab) than Caledonia and is similar to Jensen. It is highly resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and Wheat Soil Borne Mosaic Virus. This variety is moderately resistant to powdery mildew. Reaction to other diseases is unknown.

    Quality Characteristics: NY03180FHB-10 was evaluated for milling and baking quality in 2006 and 2007 and appears to have excellent milling and baking properties comparable to Caledonia. It is resistant to pre-harvest sprouting with a score similar to Jensen.

    Morphology: Plant height is about 83 cm compared to 77 cm for Caledonia and 88 for Richland. This line is awnless and has white chaff color. Heading date is similar to Caledonia or Richland.

    Status of Breeder Seed: Approximately 20 pounds of Breeder seed were harvested in the fall of 2006 and planted in Michigan for seed increase in fall 2007. In the fall of 2008, 40 acres were planted in Michigan by Platinum Genetics. This line will be offered to the New York seed industry as an exclusive release with Breeder, Foundation, and Certified classes. PVP is pending.

    Name: Some variant of the name Caledonia-FHB will be explored to take advantage of the success of the previous variety.

    Description by: Mark E. Sorrells, Cornell University

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    HS222R

    This soft red cultivar was from Harrington Seeds. Genetic test weight will likely be about 1.0 pound above the reference cultivars. Kernel weight was above average and milling quality was excellent having a mill score of 78. Caledonia, Coker 9375, Renwood 3706 and Southern States 8404 were cultivars that had similar milling quality. Flour granularity was extremely high at 38.4%. Very few cultivars had that kind of softness. The average soft wheat Allis-Chalmers break-flour would be about 32%. Cookie spread was very good and gluten strength was slightly above medium.

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    HS243R

    This Harrington Seeds cultivar had a test weight that would be similar to those cultivars in the 61.0 pound normalized group. Kernel weight and cookie spread were about average while break-flour yield was coarse at 27.9%. Milling quality was excellent and nearly paralleled HS 222R, Coker and Renwood 3706. Gluten strength was medium-strong and was similar to Coker 9553, Pioneer 25R54 and Roane.

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    Hunker

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Hunker is a soft red, medium height, awnless winter wheat with medium to late maturity. It has excellent winter hardiness, resistance to lodging and test weight. Disease resistance to Septoria glume blotch and Fusarium Head Blight is excellent and very good to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew Septoria leaf blotch, soil borne mosaic virus, barley yellow dwarf virus and good to Hessian fly. Hunker produces excellent yield and test weight, great standability, outstanding agronomics excellent SCAB tolerance.

    Description by: Steyer Seed

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    Husky

    Husky, a soft red winter wheat, has high test weight genetically that will average about 1.8 pounds above the reference cultivars. This cultivar was about medium in gluten strength.

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    IL 00-8061

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    IL00-8061 is a very high yielding soft red winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L.) released by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station in 2006 for brand labeling. Yield of IL00-8061 has been about 12 bu/A greater than Kaskaskia in 12 tests in Illinois. Yield of IL00-8061was also quite high in the 2005 Wisconsin variety trial. IL00-8061 has excellent test weight (similar to Kaskaskia), and IL00-8061 is early with heading date similar to Caldwell. It is similar in height to Kaskaskia. IL00-8061 is not awned and has tan chaff at maturity. IL00-8061 has yellow-green heads after flowering, and there is no bloom on the peduncles. Flag leaf color of IL00-8061 is green and most closely matches RHS color sample 137B. IL00-8061 is resistant to Fusarium head blight (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum), moderately resistant to soil borne mosaic virus, and resistant or moderately resistant to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia recondita).

    IL00-8061 is susceptible to biotype L of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) and susceptible or moderately susceptible to powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici). IL00-8061 is resistant to moderately resistant to Septoria leaf blotch (caused by Septoria tritici), and moderately resistant to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis). IL00-8061 has excellent milling and baking quality. Up to 0.5% other types are allowed in IL00-8061. PVP for IL00-8061 will not be applied for.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    IL 00-8633

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    IL00-8633 is a high yielding soft red winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L.) released by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station in 2006 for brand labeling. Yield of IL00-8633 has been about 5 bu/A greater than Kaskaskia in 12 tests in Illinois. Heading date of IL00-8633 is similar to Roane. It is similar in height to Kaskaskia. IL00-8633 is not awned (short tip awns are present) and has tan chaff at maturity. IL00-8633 has yellow-green heads after flowering, and there is no bloom on the peduncles. Flag leaf color of IL00-8633 is green and most closely matches RHS color sample 137B.

    IL00-8633 is somewhat more susceptible to lodging than Kaskaskia. IL00-8633 is moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum), and moderately susceptible to soil borne mosaic virus and stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis). It is moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to Septoria leaf blotch (caused by Septoria tritici). IL00-8633 has excellent milling and baking quality. Up to 0.5% other types are allowed in IL00-8633. PVP for IL00-8633 will not be applied for.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    IL 01-11934

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    IL01-11934 is an awnless soft red winter wheat with tan chaff at maturity. Foliage color has not been determined. IL01-11934 heads about two days later than Roane. It is about 1 day earlier heading than Kaskaskia, two days earlier heading than Excel 307, and three days later than IL00-8530. IL01-11934 is 2.5 cm taller than Roane, 5 cm shorter than Excel 307, similar in height to Il00-8530 and about 13 cm shorter than Kaskaskia. IL01-11934 is moderately resistance to powdery mildew and Fusarium head blight and is susceptible to Hessian Fly Biotypes B,C, D and L. Plant Variety Protection has not been applied for. Since it was released for licensing PVP cannot be obtained.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    IL 01-16170

    IL01-16170 is a an early soft red winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L.) released by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station in 2008 for brand labeling. Yield of IL01-16170 has been about 3 bu/A greater than Kaskaskia in 16 tests in Illinois. IL01-16170 has high test weight (about 1 lb/bu less than Kaskaskia), and heading date for IL01-16170 is three days earlier than Kaskaskia. It is 15 cm shorter than Kaskaskia and 1 cm shorter than Roane.

    IL01-16170 is not awned and has tan chaff at maturity. IL01-16170 is moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum), moderately resistant to soil borne mosaic virus, and is moderately susceptible to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia recondita). IL01-16170 is susceptible to biotype L of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) and susceptible or moderately susceptible to powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici). IL01-16170 is moderately susceptible to Septoria leaf blotch (caused by Septoria tritici). IL01-16170 has acceptable to good milling and baking quality. Up to 0.5% other types are allowed in IL01-16170. PVP for IL01-16170 will not be applied for.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    IL 02-18228

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    IL02-18228 is a high yielding Fusarium head blight resistant soft red winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L.) released by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010 for brand labeling. Yield of IL02-18228 has been about 7 bu/A greater than Bess in 12 tests in Illinois and about 6 bu/A less than Pioneer brand 25R47. IL02-18228 has excellent test weight (about 1 lb/bu higher than Kaskaskia and 2.5 lb/bu higher than Bess). IL02-18228 is quite early with heading date about 4 days earlier than Kaskaskia and about 3 days earlier than Bess. IL02-18228 is about 8 cm shorter than Kaskaskia and about 4 cm taller than Bess. IL02-18228 is not awned and has tan chaff at maturity.

    IL02-18228 is resistant to Fusarium head blight (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum). IL02-18228 is one of the most Fusarium head blight resistant adapted lines identified in the University of Illinois wheat breeding program to date. IL02-18228 is resistant to soil borne mosaic virus, and moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia recondita). IL02-18228 is susceptible to biotype L of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) and susceptible to powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici). IL02-18228 is moderately susceptible to Septoria leaf blotch (caused by Septoria tritici), and susceptible to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis). IL02-18228 has acceptable milling and baking quality, but is harder than optimal for a soft red winter wheat. Up to 0.5% other types are allowed in IL02-18228. PVP for IL02-18228 will not be applied for.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    IL 99-26442

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    <p>

    IL99-26442 is a very high yielding soft red winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L.) released by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station in 2006 for brand labeling. Yield of IL99-26442 has been about 11 bu/A greater than Kaskaskia in 16 tests in Illinois. Heading date of IL99-26442 is similar to Roane. It is similar in height to Kaskaskia. IL99-26442 is awned and has tan chaff at maturity. IL99-12976 has yellow-green heads after flowering, and there is no bloom on the peduncles. Flag leaf color of IL99-12976 is green and most closely matches RHS color sample 137B. IL99-26442 is moderately susceptible to Fusarium head blight (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum), and resistant to moderately resistant to soil borne mosaic virus. It is resistant to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis) and moderately susceptible to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia recondita). IL99-26442 is susceptible to biotype L of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). It is resistant to moderately resistant to soil borne mosaic virus, and resistant to Septoria leaf blotch (caused by Septoria tritici). IL99-26442 has acceptable milling and baking quality. Up to 0.5% other types are allowed in IL99-26442. PVP for IL99-26442 will not be applied for.

    </p> <p class="MsoNormal">Description by: Fred Kolb</p>

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    IL00-8530

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    IL00-8530 is a very high yielding soft red winter wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L.) released by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station in 2008 for brand labeling. Yield of IL00-8530 has been about 6 bu/A greater than Kaskaskia in 20 tests in Illinois. IL00-8530 has excellent test weight (equal to or better than Kaskaskia), and IL00-8530 is early with heading date 3- 4 days earlier than Kaskaksia and about 2 days earlier than Foster. The height of ILL00-8530 is about 15 cm shorter than Kaskaskia and about 5 cm taller than Roane. IL00-8530 is not awned and has tan chaff at maturity. IL00-8530 is moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum), moderately susceptible to soil borne mosaic virus, and moderately susceptible to susceptible to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia recondita). IL00-8530 is susceptible to biotype L of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) and susceptible or moderately susceptible to powdery mildew (caused by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici). IL00-8530 has excellent milling and baking quality. Up to 0.5% other types are allowed in IL00-8530. PVP for IL00-8530 will not be applied for.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    IL02-19463

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    IL02-19463 is a very early, awned soft red winter wheat with tan chaff at maturity. Foliage color has not been determined. It is about 5 days earlier heading than Kaskaskia, 3-4 days earlier heading than Excel 307 and Bess. IL02-19463 is about 14 cm shorter than Kaskaskia, 3-4 cm shorter than Excel 307, and about 3-5 cm shorter than Bess. IL02-19463 is moderately resistant to Fusarium head blight (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum). It is about equal to Bess for Fusarium head blight resistance and usually has lower deoxynivalenol levels than Bess. IL02-19463 is moderately tolerant to barley yellow dwarf virus. IL02-19463 is susceptible to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina). IL02-19463 has acceptable milling and baking quality. Up to 1.0 % other types are allowed in IL02-19463. Plant Variety Protection will not be applied for.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    Illini Chief

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Illini Chief was reported to be similar in appearance to Red May having brown glumes but being slightly taller and later. Illini Chief was said to be very resistant to Hessian fly injury. Illini Chief was first distributed in the fall of 1915, by E. L. Gillham, Edwardsville, Illinois. He advertised the variety as resistant to Hessian fly, stating 'that it does practically resist Hessian fly attack.' Further history of Illini Chief wheat recorded that Ed Gillham, who was the first man to grow the wheat, bought the seed in 1906 from a neighbor by the name of Finley, and it was still known as Finley wheat in Madison County. However, a second article in the Prairie Farmer by Dr. S. A. Forbes, State Entomologist of Illinois, stated 'Mr. Gillham has traced his original stock to an Ohio farmer, who called it Early Carlyle.'

    Illini Chief, in 1919, was grown on about 21,300 acres in Illinois, Kansas, Missouri and Ohio. Very little acreage was reported in 1924. Illini Chief was known as Finley in 1919 and historically as Early Carlyle.

    Finley was reported in 1919 from Kansas, Missouri and Ohio. The name Finley had been in use in the early 1880’s for an awnless variety with white glumes and red kernels. That particular wheat had disappeared from cultivation by 1919.

    Early Carlyle was not able to be acquired in 1919 and it was presumed to be out of production.

    Illini Chief was obtained from the National Collection, multiplied with contemporary cultivars and its quality traits determined. Milling quality was not very good. Additionally, flour granulation was very coarse so one would have expected the sugar snap cookie spread to be poor. Flour protein was relatively high at 11.2% which would also limit cookie spread. However, the cookie spread was not that small.

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    INW 0101

    INW 0101 was released into Indiana and has a normalized test weight of 2.3 pounds and would be similar to AGS 2000, Ariss and Featherstone 520. The gluten strength was medium.

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    INW 0123

    This cultivar was small kernelled at 30.4 grams and has medium gluten strength.

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    INW 0302

    This cultivar was released by Purdue University and has test weight similar to Choptank, Coker 9663, Pioneer 26R24, Sisson and Emmit. The kernel weight may be slightly smaller than average. INW 0302 has good milling properties and seemed to be very soft as measured by break flour yield. Cookie quality was normal and the gluten strength may be slightly above average.

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    INW 0303

    This cultivar has some very unique quality traits. Test weight, genetically, may be low. Kernel weight will likely be above average and the milling quality was good. INW 0303 had extremely high break flour yield placing the wheat in a category with only 26 others out of nearly 800 soft cultivars. INW 0303 may be valuable for contract growing because of its very fine granulation, which would suit well for cake baking needs. The cookie spread was good and the lactic acid SRC (101%) was indicative of medium-strength gluten quality.

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    INW 0304

    INW 0304 will likely be about one half pound lower in test weight compared to the reference cultivars. It has very large kernel weight of about 40 grams and has very good milling properties similar to Coker 9184, Geneva and Pioneer 26R15. The gluten strength appeared to be weak.

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    INW 0315

    INW 0315 from Purdue University may have test weight similar to the 60-pound reference cultivars. It has excellent milling quality and produces above average break flour yield. The cookie spread was very large and the gluten strength would likely be below average.

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    INW 0316

    The test weight characteristics would be similar to INW 0315. INW 0316 has good milling properties and average softness. Cookie spread was typical for soft wheat and the gluten strength was low as measured by lactic acid SRC (74%).

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    INW 0411

    INW 0411 possesses excellent milling properties and has medium gluten strength.

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    INW 0412

    This Indiana release has an unusually high normalized test weight of 3.3 pounds. There have been about 700 soft cultivars analyzed by the SWQL for genetically associated test weight. There were only 21 cultivars that would be greater than INW 0412 and 32 cultivars that would be similar in test weight to this cultivar. The gluten strength was medium-strong and preliminary evaluation suggested that the flour protein may be elevated slightly.

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    INW 0803

    INW0803 (92226) short and stiff-strawed. Excellent choice for high management to maximize yield. Early like Patterson, moderate test weight and has very good soft wheat milling and baking qualities. Resistance to SBMV and powdery mildew, has H9, has moderate resistance to Septoria tritici blotch and Stagonospora nodorum blotch, stripe rust, stem rust, powdery mildew and SBMV, and is moderately susceptible to leaf rust and BYDV.

    Description by: Fred Kolb

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    INW0731

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Parentage: Sunset/Pioneer2571/3/Clark//Roazon/Caldwell/ 4/VPM1/Moisson//Clark/3/Clark*2/Caldwell/9/Caldwell*2/PioneerS76/ 8/Beau*2/Potomac//Auburn/Caldwell*2/7/Benhur/Arthur/6/Laporte/Konx*2/ 5/Hart/Beau/4/Arthur/3/Monon//Funo/Knox/10/Freedom/Fundulea201R. After the last cross, plant selections were made in F2, F3 and F4, with the pedigree method of selection, and INW0731 is the progeny of a single F4 plant. Off-type plants in an initial F4:8 seed increase plot in 2005 were discarded.

    INW0731 soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Purdue University Agriculture Research Programs and the USDA-ARS, and was released by Purdue University Agriculture Research Programs in 2007. INW0731 was released for its high yield, excellent soft wheat milling and baking qualities, moderate resistance to yellow dwarf, Fusarium head blight, leaf rust, powdery mildew, Stagonospora nodorum blotch, Septoria leaf blotch, Soilborne Mosaic Virus, and Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus. INW0731 is susceptible to prevalent biotypes of Hessian fly, and prevalent races of stripe rust and stem rust in Indiana.

    It is adapted to Indiana, especially southern Indiana and adjacent regions, and has survived winters and performed well in northern Indiana, but winters have been mild since 1996. In multilocation trials in Indiana, 2004 – 2007 (20 year-location tests) average grain yield (kg/ha, Lsd 0.05 = 497) of cultivars INW0731, Pioneer25R47, Roane, and Patterson were 6480, 6527, 5868 and 5539, respectively, and their test weights (kg m-3, Lsd 0.05 = 21.9) were 775, 736, 789 and 773, respectively. In the Uniform Eastern Soft Winter Wheat Regional Nursery in 2006, INW0731 averaged 5586 kg/ha at 29 location tests, and ranked 24th of 46 entries. INW0731 ranked higher, even 1st of 46 entries at drier locations. In multilocation trials in Indiana in 2007, a season with significant drought conditions and moderate yellow dwarf infection, INW0731 excelled for grain yield, ranking 1st of 90 entries.

    INW0731 is moderately early, heading typically on day 134 julian, one day later than ‘Patterson’ at Lafayette, Indiana. Plant height of INW0731 is mid tall, typically 91 cm. The coleoptile of INW0731 is colorless and seedling anthocyanin is absent. Plant color is green at booting and anthers are yellow. The stem does not have anthocyanin. Stem internodes are hollow, and hairs of the last internode are absent. Spikes are awnless, fusiform and lax, and are inclined at maturity. Glumes are glabrous, mid-long, mid-wide and white at maturity. Kernels are mid-long and elliptical, the brush is short and not collared, and cheeks are rounded. The crease is mid-wide and mid-deep. Juvenile plant growth is semi-erect.

    Description by: Herb Ohm, Purdue University

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    INW1021

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    INW1021 has consistently been in the top group of entries in yield. INW1021 has Fhb1 (moderate FHB resistance), the Lr37Yr17Sr38 rust resistance linkage block, good soft wheat milling and baking qualities and the Bx70e strong gluten allele; the Rht1 dwarfing allele and the Ppd daylength insensitive allele (one reason for its wide adaptability). Plant height of INW1021 is similar to that of Patterson and Bess, it is awnless, has large spikes, tillers well and has moderately strong straw. It has moderate resistance to Fusarium head blight, Yellow Dwarf Virus, Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus, Soilborne Mosaic Virus, leaf, stem and stripe rusts, powdery mildew, Stagonospora Nodorum blotch, Septoria leaf blotch, and is susceptible to Hession fly biotype L. INW1021 typically heads one day earlier than Patterson (one day later than Clark) in southern IN and one day later than Patterson (three days later than Clark) in northern IN (a bit unusual… but probably because INW1021 has the Ppd daylength insensitive allele).

    Description by: Agricultural Alumni Seed Improvement Association, Inc.

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    INW1131

    INW1131 was performance tested as line 99751RA1-6-3-94 in multi-location tests in Indiana since 2007, and in tests in surrounding regions since 2009. INW1131 typically produces grain yield similar to or statistically not less than leading current cultivars. INW1131 has acceptable pastry wheat milling and baking qualities, matures 2-3 days later than the early maturity cultivar Patterson, depending on latitude of the test location; has awnlets 1/16 to 5/16 inch long in the tip ½ of spikes, has yellow anthers, glumes are yellow at maturity, has strong straw that is typically 33 to 36 inches tall, and is moderately cold tolerant. An important contribution of INW1131 is it's effective resistance to fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum, the same fungus that causes ear and stalk rot in corn, and that also produces the vomitoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). INW1131 has effective Type I (reduced percentage of spikes that become infected) resistance, together with moderate Type II (reduced spread of the disease within infected spikes) resistance to FHB; and DON content in the grain is consistently significantly less than in susceptible cultivars.

    INW1131 has highly effective resistance to Hessian fly, and moderate resistance to stagonospora glume blotch, septoria leaf blotch, barley yellow dwarf virus, wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, and leaf- and stem rusts. Given its effective, but not complete, resistances to most of the important diseases, especially FHB, in Indiana and the Eastern US region along with highly variable seasonal weather patterns, some being very favorable to disease organisms, wheat growers are strongly encouraged to monitor their wheat crop for presence and development of diseases, and apply fungicides when appropriate, to maximize crop performance and grain quality, particularly given the very low level of tolerance for DON in the food industry.

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    Jack

    This Gries Seed cultivar appeared to have semi-hard attributes. Jack may be about 2 pounds greater in test weight from the reference cultivars. The very coarse flour granulation produced cookie spread that was below average. Water absorption was 56% in contrast to soft wheat, which would usually be in the low 50% range. Flour protein was not elevated and the lactic acid SRC of 94% would suggest average gluten strength.

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    Jacob

    Jacob will probably be about 1 pound higher in test weight than the 60-pound reference cultivars and has below average kernel size. Jacob has good milling quality and produces very fine granulating flour. Cookie spread was normal for soft wheat and the gluten strength was medium-strong.

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    Jamestown

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar JAMESTOWN was derived from the cross ‘Roane’/ Pioneer Brand ‘2691’. The cultivar was approved for release by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in spring 2007, and certified seed was available in Fall 2009. JAMESTOWN is a distinctly early heading, high yielding, short stature, awned, soft red winter wheat cultivar. JAMESTOWN is widely adapted and provides producers in the mid-South, Deep South, and throughout the mid-Atlantic region with a distinctly early maturing, disease and pest resistant cultivar. JAMESTOWN is notable resistant to Hessian fly, leaf rust, stripe rust, powdery mildew, and Fusarium head blight.

    On the basis of milling and baking quality evaluations over four crop years (2003-2006), JAMESTOWN tends to have higher break flour yields (30.5% versus 28.3%) and slightly softer texture (higher softness equivalent score 57.4% versus 54.1%) than USG 3209. Straight grade flour yields of JAMESTOWN (71.7%) have been slightly higher than those of USG 3209 (71.1%).

    On average JAMESTOWN has higher flour protein concentration (8.92% versus 8.66%) and gluten strength (lactic acid retention value of 113% versus 107%) than USG 3209 and, therefore, may be suitable for use in making crackers and other products requiring moderate gluten strength. Overall, JAMESTOWN has better baking quality than USG 3209 on the basis of lower values for sucrose retention capacity (93.8% versus 104%) and larger cookie diameters (17.0 cm versus 16.8 cm).

    Description by: Carl Griffey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

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    Jensen

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    Pedigree: Susquehanna/Harus

    Morphology: Plant height is 2-4 inches taller than Caledonia and nearly the same height as Richland. This line is awnless and has white chaff color. Heading date about two days later than Caledonia or Richland.

    Grain Yield: Over four years, this line is similar in grain yield to Caledonia and Richland at 76 b/a.

    Test Weight: NY88046-8138 has excellent test weight and is averaging 57.4 lbs/bu over four years versus 55.7 lbs/bu for Caledonia and 56.3 lbs/bu for Richland.

    Winter Hardiness: Winter survival is similar to current varieties.

    Resistance: Lodging resistance of NY88046-8138 appears to be comparable to Richland. Caledonia may be slightly more lodging resistant.

    Disease Resistance: NY88046-8138 is more resistant than current soft white wheat varieties to Fusarium head blight (scab). It is rated as moderately resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and susceptible to Wheat Soil Borne Mosaic Virus. The powdery mildew rating is better than all other current varieties except Richland. Seedling tests at Virginia Tech show that NY88046-8138 is resistant to a powdery mildew composite with virulence for resistance genes Pm1,2,3,3a,3c,3f,4a,4b,5,6,7. NY88046-8138 is moderately susceptible to leaf rust race TNRJ. Reaction to other diseases is unknown.

    Quality Characteristics: From four different evaluations over three years, NY88046-8138 appears to have satisfactory milling and baking properties and is comparable to Caledonia and Richland. It is moderately resistant to pre-harvest sprouting with a sprouting score higher than Cayuga but much lower than all other current varieties.

    Status of Breeder Seed: Approximately two acres of Breeder seed were planted in the fall of 2005. This line is a public release with Breeder, Foundation, and Certified classes. PVP was submitted in fall 2007.

    Description by: Mark E. Sorrells, Cornell University

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    Jentes

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Jentes, a soft red winter from Steyer Seeds of Ohio, will probably be about 1 pound above the reference cultivars for test weight. Jentes had very good milling properties and break-flour was average. Cookie spread was above average and gluten strength could not be assessed.

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    Jewel

    Soft White Wheat

    This soft white cultivar was released from Michigan State University to the Michigan Crop Improvement Association. It was tested under the designation E 1007W. Test weight of Jewel will likely be about 1.3 pounds higher than the reference cultivars. Kernel weight was very large at 41.6 grams. Jewel had excellent milling quality with milling score in excess of 75. Break-flour yield was normal while cookie spread may be a little small. Gluten strength was about average having an Allis-Chalmers lactic acid SRC of 94%.

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    Jones Fife

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Jones Fife (Jones Winter Fife) was originated by A. N. Jones, of Newark, Wayne County, New York, in 1889. According to Carleton, in 1916, 'it descended from Fultz, Mediterranean, and Russian Velvet.' Jones Fife was said to make comparatively weak flour for bread making.

    The variety was grown as Fife, Jones Fife, or Jones Winter Fife on 476,100 acres in 1919, in Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia. It was grown as Silver King and under other names in Colorado and Wyoming. Jones Fife had occupied 20,064 acres in 1949. By 1959, it was grown on only 2,059 acres. Jones Fife, in 1919, was also known as Burbank’s Super, Canadian Hybrid, Crail Fife, Fife, Fishhead, Silver King, Super, Velvet Chaff, and Winter Fife.

    Burbank’s Super, or Super wheat, was distributed by Luther Burbank, of Santa Rosa, California, in the fall of 1917. The following was Mr. Burbank’s first statement regarding that variety, published in August, 1917, in his catalogue under the title The New Burbank Wheat:

    'It is with unusual satisfaction that I now offer for the first time a limited quantity of my new wheat; the best result of 10 years of most careful and expensive experiments. It has been tested alongside of 68 of the best wheats of the world, and has excelled them all in yield, uniformity, and other desirable characteristics; the growth is strong, 4 feet on good ordinary soil, tillers unusually well, and on ordinary valley soil, without special cultivation, care, or fertilizing, this summer produced at the rate of forty-nine and 88-100 bushels per acre, every plant and every kernel uniform, as this wheat was originally all grown from one single kernel.

    Even at present prices of ordinary wheat for milling purposes, it will be readily seen that the crop of each acre would purchase an acre of the best wheat land. The small field of this new wheat has been the wonder and surprise of thousands who have seen it, nothing like it in uniformity and beauty ever having been seen before. The cut shows the exact size and appearance of the long, smooth, white, well-filled heads.

    Every kernel is guaranteed uniform and correct to type. This, like all other wheats grown in California, is a winter wheat and should probably be generally treated as such, and will, no doubt, thrive better in new localities after it becomes acclimated by one or two seasons’ growth…….The best successes of my customers are also my own, and the whole wheat crop of America will soon be enormously increased if this new 'Burbank' wheat is generally sown.'

    Mr. Burbank further advertised and distributed the wheat as Super wheat in 1917 and 1918. Apparently most of his wheat stock was purchased and resold by the State Seed & Nursery Co., of Helena, Montana, at the price of $5.00 per pound. They advertised it as a wheat adapted for both spring and fall sowing. It was then distributed in many sections where it was not adapted. East of the Rocky Mountains, Burbank wheat generally winterkilled when fall sown and remained prostrate on the ground throughout the growing season when spring sown, thus resulting in failure.

    Burbank was not reported in the varietal survey of 1919. Luther Burbank’s Super wheat was found to be identical with Jones Fife in all taxonomic characters, as well as in yield and in milling and baking quality.

    Canadian Hybrid was similar to Jones Fife, except that it sometimes had a slightly longer and laxer spike. It was listed by John A. Salzer, seedsman, of La Crosse, Wisconsin, as early as 1895. John Salzer stated that it originated in Canada, on the farm of Clark Parker. Mr. Parker claimed to have the best crops of winter wheat in his section for a long time. He would acquire the best specimens of different sorts, and plant them together, and, thus, continuously improve his yield. He stated that he could not call any of those sorts pure, but could call the Canadian Hybrid enormously productive. It was reported grown in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Missouri.

    Crail Fife was a local name applied to Jones Fife wheat in Montana. Frank Crail of Bozeman, Montana, was the name of the farmer who grew and distributed the variety under that name.

    Fishhead was a wheat similar to Jones Fife. Samples were obtained from the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Silver King was a name used for Jones Fife in Colorado and Wyoming. According to J. B. Hill, of Westridge, Colorado, it had been grown in that vicinity for 16 or 18 years.

    Winter Fife, a part of the original name, often was used by growers to distinguish it from the well-known spring wheat called Fife.

    Jones Fife (CI# 4468), was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection in 1986, from Beltsville, Maryland. The field yield was one of the better ones of the older varieties at about 67% of the field yield of the contemporary cultivars.

    The 1000-kernel weight was about 35.0 grams. Jones Fife had excellent milling quality, but had granularity similar to a hard red winter wheat. Flour protein was approximately 1.0 percentage point above the modern cultivars. AWRC was very high for a soft wheat at 61%, but, not as high as a HRW wheat would be. The sugar snap cookie diameter (x 2) was 2 cm smaller (15.8cm) than the typical soft wheat. The slightly elevated flour protein was not high enough to account for the reduced cookie spread. In 1919, it was stated that Jones Fife was weak for bread baking. SWQL analysis of Jones Fife for gluten strength indicated that it was one of the weakest ever evaluated.

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    Jordan

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Jordan is a soft red, awnless winter wheat with medium height and medium to early maturity. Jordan has an excellent test weight and very good standability and winter hardiness. This is a very high yielding variety with an excellent disease package. Jordan is resistant to stem rust, leaf rust, glume blotch, leaf blotch, Soil Borne Mosaic Virus, Barley Yellow Dwarf and Hessian fly and has good resistance to powdery mildew.

    Description by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

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    Jupiter

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    ‘Jupiter’ (MSU research name E5011) is a soft white winter wheat developed at Michigan State University from the cross ‘Caledonia’ / ‘Richland’. Jupiter has exceptional yield in Michigan, good powdery mildew resistance, short stature, bronze chaff and is awnletted (very short awns). Jupiter was released from MSU in 2010. It is susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB), though its reaction to FHB is not statistically different (LSD 0.05) from ‘Caledonia’, the soft white winter wheat that has been predominant in Michigan for the past several years. In the 2010 Wheat Quality Council meeting, Jupiter was reported to have good biscuit and breakfast cereal qualities.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    Kelley

    Hard White Wheat

    The semi-hard white cultivar Kelley has slightly higher test weight than the reference cultivars. It has excellent milling quality and very coarse flour granulation. Flour protein was similar to typical soft wheat and the flour water absorption was low. Gluten strength was about average.

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    Kidwell

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    • Grain yield: excellent
    • Winter hardiness: Excellent
    • Lodging resistance: Excellent
    • Disease resistance: Moderate resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust, septoria leaf blotch, septoria glume blotch, fusarium head scab.
    • Morphology: Awned
    • Plant height: Med-short
    • Heading date: Med-early
    • Status of breeder seed: New release in 2011, 2 years testing, 250 acres seed production.

    Description by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

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    Kingen

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    • Grain yield: Excellent
    • Winter hardiness: Excellent
    • Lodging resistance: Excellent
    • Disease resistance: Moderate resistance to powdery mildew,stripe rust, leaf rust, septoria leaf blotch
    • Quality characteristics: Good milling and baking qualities
    • Morphology: Awnless
    • Plant height: Med-tall
    • Heading date: Early
    • Status of breeder seed: Released in 2008, 4 years testing, 300 acres seed production.

    Description by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

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    Leap

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Leap (Leap’s Prolific) was reported to have originated from a single plant found in a field of Mediterranean by the oldest son of J. S. Leap, of Virginia. From the five heads gathered in 1901, Mr. Leap increased the wheat until 1905, when he thrashed 190 bushels grown from 10 bushels of seed. T. W. Wood & Sons, seedsmen, of Richmond, Virginia, first distributed the variety as Leap’s Prolific. General distribution of the wheat started about 1907 and became very popular.

    Leap was grown on 513,000 acres in 1919 and reached its peak around 1929 with 673,000 acres. By 1959, Leap was still grown on 21,000 acres. The variety was distributed in Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia.

    Other names for Leap were Hastings Prolific, Woods Prolific and Woolf.

    Hastings Prolific was a name used for Leap wheat in Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina.

    Woods Prolific was used for the variety in Tennessee and Virginia. (Hastings Prolific and Woods Prolific were probably derived from the names of the seed firms selling it.)

    Woolf was a name used for the Leap variety in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky.

    Leap 'selection' was obtained as a five-gram sample from the National Small Grains Collection in 1989 and another sample of Leap was acquired from North Carolina State University in 1992. Eventually, both samples were grown together where they seemed to be the same appearance-wise in the field and yielded the same quantity of wheat. The field yield was about 50% of the modern cultivars that were available in the 1990’s. The quality data from both plots also seemed to be the same. Leap had moderately sized grain with 37 grams per thousand kernels. It had good milling quality with slightly below-average softness. Cookie quality was good considering the high flour protein. Gluten strength was below average.

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    MacMillian

    Steyer Seeds of Ohio introduced this cultivar that will likely be about 1.5 pounds above the 60 pound category in the test weight tables. Kernel size may be slightly below average and break-flour yield was slightly above average. Cookie quality may be on the smaller side and gluten strength was slightly above medium.

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    Magic

    Hard White Wheat

    Magic will be marketed by John Gerard Limited. This hard wheat cultivar has excellent test weight and very large kernel weight. The milling quality was superior with an ESI of 6.6%. Flour granulation was typically coarse for hard wheat. Flour protein was about 1.5 percentage points greater than the average soft wheat. Water absorption was 59% as measured by the water solvent capacity test. The gluten strength was strong with a lactic acid SRC of 120%.

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    Magnolia

    Magnolia was released by AgriPro in Arkansas. Limited test weight data suggested it would be about 1.5 pounds above the reference standards. The Magnolia sample from Arkansas had very large kernel weight of 42.8 grams per thousand grains. Milling quality was very good. This sample had a rather high flour protein of 10.7% which would have suppressed the cookie spread. Gluten strength may be medium-strong having a lactic acid SRC of 105% adjusted to 9% flour protein. The lactic acid SRC was 117% at 10.7% protein.

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    Malabar

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Ohio Certified Seed “Malabar” is a new mid-season, beardless, soft red winter wheat that offers consistent yields with high test weight and an excellent disease resistance package. It is an awnless, white chaffed variety that has medium plant height with good standability. It shows outstanding tolerance with moderate resistance to Fusarium head blight.

    Description by: Clay Sneller, The Ohio State University

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    Mediterranean

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Reference to the Mediterranean variety in American literature began in 1842, when the variety was widely grown, with the statement that it had been introduced some years before. One writer said it was introduced into Maryland from the Mediterranean Sea region in 1837. However, in 1863 it was recorded that it was introduced in 1819 from Genoa, Italy, by John Gordon of Wilmington, Delaware. It came into prominence in New York between 1845 and 1855, from which time its culture spread rapidly westward.

    Its early popularity, apparently, was gained because it was more resistant to Hessian fly damage than other varieties. It was found also to be several days earlier than the commonly grown wheats, such as the Flint, Bluestem, Red Bluestem, Golden Straw and other wheats grown at that time. It was called rust resistant probably because of its earliness, and was commended as a high yielder of especially heavy grain and adapted to poorer soils than most varieties.

    White wheats being the standard, it was vigorously criticized, especially by millers, because its red kernels yielded a dark flour and because of the thickness of the bran. This disapproval persisted for at least 25 years, but after the introduction of roller mills it became recognized as a good milling wheat.

    In the earlier years it became known under many different names, as Bearded Mediterranean, Red Mediterranean, and Red Chaff Mediterranean, to distinguish it from other and different varieties to which the name Mediterranean became attached. Other synonyms were Columbian and Quaker in Pennsylvania and German in Maryland. By 1919, those names apparently had gone out of use. That early confusion in names probably was the result of repeated introductions.

    In 1919, nearly 100 years after its introduction from Italy, Mediterranean was grown on 2,558,900 acres in Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia. Mediterranean was grown on 46,329 acres in 1959.

    Mediterranean, in 1919, was also known as Acme, Bluestem, Farmers Trust, Great Western, Key’s Prolific, Lancaster Red, Lehigh, Miller, Miller’s Pride, Missouri Bluestem, Mortgage Lifter, Red Chaff, Red Sea, Red Top, Rocky Mountain, Standby and Swamp.

    Bluestem was a name commonly used by farmers in the eastern United States for Mediterranean, as well as for many other wheat varieties.

    Farmers Trust was a name used in the central United States for Mediterranean wheat beginning about 1900.

    Lehigh was used for Mediterranean from about 1900 to 1920. The name was abruptly dropped by growers around After about 1920 only experiment stations continued to use the name Lehigh

    Lancaster Red was reported by Dietz in 1869 as 'a variety of the Red Chaff Bearded Mediterranean'. It was obtained by selecting from the field in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Red Sea was a name long used for Mediterranean wheat. How and when its use became established was not known.

    Rocky Mountain was a wheat identical to Mediterranean. Rocky Mountain was grown at the Federal and State Experiment Stations at Arlington Farm, Virginia, and College Park, Maryland, beginning in 1908. The original sample had originated in Maryland about 1900.

    Swamp was a name commonly used for Mediterranean primarily in Indiana. It was advertised by J. A. Everitt’s Seed Store, of Indianapolis , Indiana, in their fall catalogue of 1899, and was likely distributed for several years prior to 1899. In 1919 it was reported grown in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia.

    Comparison to Contemporary Cultivars

    A sample of Mediterranean (CI # 5303) was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection in 1986 and was multiplied with contemporary cultivars. Mediterranean was similar in kernel weight to Coker 9803, Foster, Goldfield, Kaskaskia and Pioneer 25W33.

    Its milling quality was similar to Ramrod, Howell, Cayuga and Coker 9474, while it displayed rather coarse flour granulation being much like Arthur, Delta Queen, FFR 566W and USG 3209.

    Flour protein averaged about 3 percentage points higher than contemporary cultivars. Mediterranean produced very small sugar-snap cookies. Those were likely due to high flour protein. Alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) was low, which suggested that Mediterranean had genetically good soft wheat baking potential. (There has not been a correlation between flour protein and AWRC.) The gluten strength was about medium-weak.

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    Merl

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar MERL, previously designated VA03W-412, was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. MERL was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052=SS 520). MERL has been evaluated in Virginia’s Official State Variety Trial since 2005, and was evaluated throughout most of the soft red winter wheat region in the USDA-ARS Uniform Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery from 2006 to 2008. MERL is widely adapted and provides producers and end users in the mid to deep South, mid-Atlantic, southern Corn Belt, and Northeastern regions of the U.S. with a cultivar that has high yield potential and good milling and pastry baking qualities. Foundation seed of MERL was first distributed to seedsmen in fall 2009, and limited amounts of certified seed is available for growers. Marketing and distribution of MERL is being directed by the Virginia Crop Improvement Association, 9225 Atlee Branch Lane, Mechanicsville, VA 23116.

    MERL is a broadly adapted, high yielding, moderately short, mid-season soft red winter wheat cultivar having good milling and pastry baking quality. Spikes and straw of MERL are creamy white in color at maturity, and the awnletted spikes are blocky to tapering in shape. Head emergence of MERL (121 d, Julian) in Virginia is most similar to that of ‘Tribute’, and on average is 0 to 2 days earlier heading than Roane. Average plant height of MERL (33.5 inches) is 1.5 inches shorter than SS ‘MPV57’ and 2 inches taller than ‘Jamestown’. Straw strength (0=Erect to 9=Completely lodged) of MERL (1.4 – 2.0) is better than that of Roane (3.0 – 4.1). In Virginia, MERL had a three year (2006 – 2008) average grain yield (92 Bu/ac) that was similar to that of the highest yield cultivar Shirley, and an average test weight of 60.3 Lb/Bu that was significantly above the test averages in three out of four years.

    Winter hardiness and spring freeze tolerance (0=No injury to 9=Complete kill) of MERL is moderate (2.5 and 4.6), but less than that of Roane (1.7 and 2.9). MERL is resistant to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) and moderately resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis). MERL is susceptible to stem rust (Puccinia graminis), Soilborne Mosaic Virus, and Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)]. In Virginia, Fusarium head blight [Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe)] disease index scores (0 – 100) for MERL have ranged from 4 to 17 with DON toxin concentrations from 0.7 to 1.3 ppm. In five Uniform Eastern Nursery tests, average FHB index scores of MERL (32 – 51) were higher than those of the resistant cultivar Roane (13 – 23).

    On the basis of six independent milling and baking quality evaluations over three crop years (2005-2007), MERL has consistently exhibited good milling and pastry baking quality. MERL’s good milling quality is attributed to its soft grain texture, low endosperm separation indices (9.1 – 9.7%), high break flour yields (30.0 – 30.6%), and high straight grade flour yields (76.9 – 71.1%) on an Allis mill. Flour protein concentrations of MERL are lower than average ranging from 7.38% to 9.01%, and protein gluten strength is moderately weak on the basis of Lactic Acid Retention Capacity values ranging from 95.8% to 103.9%. The aforementioned quality attributes of MERL and the low Sucrose Retention Capacity (88.9% – 93.2%) of its flour contribute to its good pastry baking quality as exemplified by high values for cookie spread diameter (mean of 18.06 cm).

    Grain of MERL submitted for evaluation by Wheat Quality Council was produced in 2009 at the Foundation Seed Farm of the Virginia Crop Improvement Association located at Mount Holly, VA. Grain was produced using intensive management practices including split application of spring N, Prosaro fungicide and Warrior insecticide. The 2008-2009 production season had cooler and drier winter conditions than normal followed by warmer and wetter conditions during flowering which resulted in widespread and severe FHB epidemics. Wet weather delayed harvest in many areas resulting in further degradation of grain quality.

    Description by: Carl Griffey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

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    Merrell

    This was another cultivar from Steyer Seeds and the genetic shrivel-free test weight will be about 1.6 pounds greater than the reference wheats. Kernel weight, break-flour, cookie diameter and gluten strength were average. The milling quality was very good. The ability of the middling stock to efficiently reduce to flour size was exceptional.

    Additional Description below by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

    Merrell is a soft red, awnless winter wheat with medium height and medium to early maturity. Merrell has an excellent test weight and very good standability and winter hardiness. This is an early, high yielding variety with excellent winter hardiness and wonderful standability and good disease resistance. Merrell was #1 in 2006 Penn State Wheat Trials.

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    Monarch

    Gries Seeds introduced this cultivar that possesses many good quality attributes. The normalized test weight was about 2.0 pounds higher than the reference cultivars. Monarch had premier milling quality being similar to AGS 2000, Coker 9152, Mountain and Pat. Out of 734 soft wheat cultivars, there were only 19 cultivars that were considered to have better milling quality than Monarch. The cultivar produced fine granulating flour on the break rolls and had large cookie spread. Monarch was about medium in gluten strength.

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    Moral

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Moral is a soft red, awnless winter wheat with short height and medium maturity. Moral has an excellent test weight and superb powdery mildew resistance. Moral produces consistent yields over varied environments.

    Description by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

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    MSU D8006

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    MSU D8006 is a soft white winter wheat, is awned, and is white chaffed. MSU D8006 is moderately resistant to stripe rust and Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and has superior milling and baking properties. Allis milling data is available from 2006, and Miag milling data is included in the Miag milling database.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    MSU E6012

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    E6012 is a soft white winter wheat developed at Michigan State University from the cross ‘Caledonia’ / Pioneer Brand ‘25W33’. E6012 has good yield in Michigan, is early maturing, of average height, has white chaff, is awned and has good resistance to stripe rust.

    Description by: Janet Lewis, Michigan State University

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    Natchez

    AgriPro released Natchez, which has good test weight, about 1 pound lower than Coker 9184, McCormick and Roane. Break flour yield was average and the gluten strength was about average with lactic acid SRC of 92%.

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    Oasis (OH)

    Ohio State University produced this cultivar that has test weight about 1 pound higher than the reference cultivars. The kernel size was large at 39 grams per thousand. It has excellent milling quality and slightly above average flour granulation. Cookie spread was above average and the gluten strength appeared to be average. Also known as OH 708

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    OH04-264-58

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    OH04-264-58 is a soft wheat with very strong gluten. Our current analyses indicate that the gluten strength of OH04-264-58 is similar to that of Pioneer 25R26 and shows stability over environments. Its gluten strength is derived in part from the Bx7oe allele at the Glu-B1 locus. This allele produces over expression of the high molecular weight glutenins at that locus. OH04-264-58has below average quality for cakes or cookies and is best suited for crackers. OH04-264-58has short stature with good lodging resistance, tan chaff and awns. It has moderate resistance to Fusarium head blight, powdery mildew, and Stagonospora leaf and glume blotches. OH04-264-58? has been approved for release for exclusive licensing. The process for obtaining a license will be developed and distributed within the next two months.

    Description by: Clay Sneller, The Ohio State University

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    OH751

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Pedigree: 10584-08-01 (IN71761a4-31-5-33 / MO55-286-21) / Coker9663 (IN71761A4-31-5-48 / FL 302)

    Grain Yield: Over four years of testing, this line averaged 4 b/a higher grain yield than SW50 and 8 b/a above Truman. The three year summary shows a 1 b/a edge over Pioneer 25R47.

    Test Weight: Oh751 averages 0.7 lbs/bu below Truman but 0.6 lbs/b above Pioneer 25R47.

    Winter Hardiness: Winter survival is similar to current varieties.

    Lodging Resistance: OH751 is similar to Pioneer 25R47 and Richland and much better than Truman for lodging resistance.

    Disease Resistance: OH751 has excellent resistance to powdery mildew, leaf spot, glume blotch, leaf rust and moderate resistance to Fusarium head blight (scab). It is also resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and Wheat Soil Borne Mosaic Virus. Reaction to other diseases is unknown.

    Quality Characteristics: OH751 was evaluated for milling and baking quality over four years and it appears to have satisfactory milling and baking properties comparable to current varieties. It is resistant to pre-harvest sprouting.

    Morphology: Plant height is about 90 cm compared to 92 cm for Truman and 84 cm for Pioneer 25R47. This line is awnless and has white chaff color. Heading date is one or two days later than Pioneer 25R47 or Truman.

    Status of Breeder Seed: Approximately five acres of Breeder seed were planted in the fall of 2009 for Foundation seed production. This line will be offered to the New York seed industry as a non-exclusive release variety with Breeder, Foundation, and Certified classes. Ohio State University will apply for PVP.

    Name: To be determined.

    Description by: Mark E. Sorrells, Cornell University

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    Panola

    This AgriPro cultivar has above average kernel weight and normal flour granularity. The lactic acid SRC was 97% suggesting medium-strong gluten strength.

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    Pioneer 25R32

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    25R32 (Experimental number XW07X) is a soft red winter wheat developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. 25R32 is awned and on average heads one day later than 25R47. It averages about three centimeters taller than 25R47 and it has good straw lodging resistance. 25R32 has shown good winter hardiness and it joints very late in the spring, which reduces its risk of damage from spring freeze.

    25R32 exhibits a high level of Fusarium head blight resistance along with excellent stripe rust and very good powdery mildew resistance. 25R32 has good resistance to Spindle Streak Mosaic and Soilborne Mosaic Viruses. It has average resistance to leaf rust and the complex of fungal organisms that incite leaf blights. 25R32 is postulated to contain the H9,H10 genes for Hessian fly resistance.

    25R32 has been granted Plant Variety Protection (200900448) and U.S. Patent has been applied for.

    Description by: Bill Lasker and Greg Marshall, Pioneer Hybrid

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    Pioneer 25R34

    Soft Red Wheat

    • PLANT: winter type, common wheat, semi-erect growth habit at the 5-9 tiller stage, high to very high frequency of plants with recurved flag leaves, weak to medium glaucosity of the culm at heading, medium maturity
    • SEEDLING (4 leaf stage): medium intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the coleoptile, glabrous sheaths and blades of the lower leaves
    • FLAG LEAF: absent or very weak intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the auricles, medium to strong glaucosity of the sheath, glabrous blade and sheath
    • STRAW (AT MATURITY): thin pith in cross-section, no anthocyanin colouration
    • SPIKE: weak to medium glaucosity at heading, tapering profile, medium density, awns present, awns equal to slightly longer than the length of the spike
    • SPIKE AT MATURITY: white, white to light brown awns, nodding attitude, straight culm, absent or very sparse hairiness of convex surface of apical rachis segment
    • LOWER GLUME: very narrow shoulder, sloping shoulder shape, medium length and width, glabrous, short slightly curved beak, sparse extent of internal hairs
    • LOWEST LEMMA: slightly curved beak
    • KERNEL: soft red type, medium red colour, medium to large size, medium to long, medium width, oval, rounded cheek shape, medium length brush hairs, medium sized oval germ, narrow crease, shallow crease, light reaction to phenol
    • AGRONOMY: good winter survival, good resistance to pre-harvest sprouting
    • QUALITY: good pastry and bisquit quality
    • DISEASE REACTION: moderately resistant to Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis), moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to Septoria Tritici Blotch (Septoria tritici) and Leaf Rust (Puccinia triticina), moderately susceptible to Fusarium
    • Head Blight (Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium species) Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and Soil Bourne Mosaic virus, and moderately susceptible to susceptible to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe graminis, fsp. tritici)
    • INSECT REACTION: resistant to Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor) Biotypes E & L

    Description from Plant Varieties Journal, January 2011, No. 78

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    Pioneer 25R35

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    This soft red winter cultivar will likely be about 1 pound higher in test weight than the normalized reference cultivars. The gluten strength appears to be about medium.

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    Pioneer 25R39

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    25R39 (formerly XW06M) is a soft red winter wheat that was developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., and it is derived from a single cross of a Pioneer experimental variety and previously released Pioneer variety, using a modified pedigree selection breeding method. 25R39 is primarily intended for grain production and it has shown good adaptation to the soft winter wheat region based on tests conducted in Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Maryland and Ontario, Canada.

    25R39 is awnless and heads about one day later than 25R47 on average. It has shown very good winter hardiness and moderate resistance to straw lodging. It has demonstrated excellent resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust and moderate resistance to powdery mildew. It has also shown moderate resistance to the complex of fungal organisms that incite leaf blights. It also exhibits moderate resistance to wheat spindle streak and soil borne wheat mosaic viruses.

    Description by: Bill Lasker and Greg Marshall, Pioneer Hybrid

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    Pioneer 25R40

    Soft Red Wheat

    • PLANT: winter type, common wheat, semi-erect growth habit at the 5-9 tiller stage, medium to high frequency of plants with recurved flag leaves, strong glaucosity of the culm at heading, medium maturity
    • SEEDLING (4 leaf stage): medium intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the coleoptile, glabrous sheaths and blades of the lower leaves
    • FLAG LEAF: absent or very weak intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the auricles, medium to strong glaucosity of the sheath, glabrous blade and sheath
    • STRAW (AT MATURITY): thin pith in cross-section, no anthocyanin colouration SPIKE: weak to medium glaucosity at heading, tapering profile, medium density, awns present, awns equal to slightly longer than the length of the spike SPIKE AT MATURITY: white, white to light brown awns, nodding attitude, straight culm, absent or very sparse hairiness of convex surface of apical rachis segment
    • LOWER GLUME: very narrow shoulder, sloping shoulder shape, medium length and width, glabrous, medium length moderately curved beak, sparse extent of internal hairs
    • LOWEST LEMMA: slightly curved beak
    • KERNEL: soft red type, medium red colour, medium to large size, medium to long, medium width, oval and elliptical, rounded cheek shape, short brush hairs, medium sized round germ, narrow crease, shallow crease, light reaction to phenol
    • AGRONOMIY: fair winter survival, good resistance to pre-harvest sprouting
    • QUALITY: fair pastry and bisquit quality
    • DISEASE REACTION: resistant to moderately resistant to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe graminis, fsp. tritici) and Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis), moderately resistant to Leaf Rust (Puccinia triticina), moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and Soil Bourne Mosaic virus, moderately susceptible to Septoria Tritici Blotch (Septoria tritici) and moderately susceptible to susceptible to Fusarium Head Blight (Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium species)
    • INSECT REACTION: susceptible to Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor) Biotypes E & L

    Description from Plant Varieties Journal, January 2011, No. 78

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    Pioneer 25R54

    Soft Red Wheat

    This cultivar will likely be in the same category as the reference cultivars for test weight. It has excellent milling properties and very fine flour granulation. The cookie spread was larger than the average soft wheat. Gluten strength was medium-strong with lactic acid SRC of 103%.

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    Pioneer 25R63

    Pioneer Hi-Bred International released this soft red cultivar that will likely be about 1.5 pounds greater than the reference cultivars. It had large kernel size of nearly 40 grams per thousand grains. Milling quality was good and break-flour yield was about average. Flour protein may be slightly low and gluten strength will apparently be slightly above medium.

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    Pioneer 25W41

    Soft White Wheat

    Pioneer 25W41 is a soft white wheat that will average about 2 pounds greater than the 60-pound reference cultivars. Kernel size was average and milling quality was good. It seemed to have very soft flour characteristics and with normal cookie size. The cultivar will likely be about average in gluten strength.

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    Pioneer 26R12

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Pioneer 26R12 is a soft red winter wheat that has very good milling properties. The normalized test weight seems to be about 3 pounds higher than the reference cultivars listed in this report. Examples of cultivars similar to Pioneer 26R12 in test weight are: McCormick, Neuse NC, Pioneer 26R61, Roane and Spencer. There are about 660 cultivars listed in this report that have been evaluated for their genetic test weight relationship and only about 23 contemporary cultivars would exceed Pioneer 26R12. Some of those '23' are the same cultivar with different brand names. This cultivar produced large sugar snap cookies and was about medium in gluten strength.

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    Pioneer 26R15

    Soft Red Wheat

    This soft red wheat has very good milling quality. It seems to be strong in gluten strength.

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    Pioneer 26R20

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    26R20 (Experimental number XW07B) is a soft red winter wheat developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. 26R20 is awned and on average heads three days later than 25R78. It averages about four centimeters taller than 25R78 and it has very good straw lodging resistance.

    26R20 has shown very good resistance to leaf rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew. 26R20 has average resistance to Spindle Streak Mosaic and Soilborne Mosaic Viruses and the complex of fungal organisms that incite leaf blights. It has shown moderate resistance to predominant field biotypes of Hessian fly in the southeastern U.S. region. 26R20 has below average Fusarium head blight resistance.

    26R20 has been granted Plant Variety Protection (200900447) and U.S. Patent has been applied for.

    Description by: Bill Lasker and Greg Marshall, Pioneer Hybrid

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    Pioneer 26R31

    The test weight would mirror the reference cultivars in the normalized test weight tables. Kernel weight was very large. Pioneer 26R31 displayed superior milling properties evidenced by the 7.6% ESI. Very few cultivars will have that type of milling performance. Flour granularity seemed to be about average and cookie spread was good. The gluten strength will probably be slightly above average.

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    Purplestraw

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The origin of Purplestraw wheat was undetermined. It was, however, one of the earlier varieties of wheat grown in the United States. Concerning its early culture, Edmund Ruffin recorded in 1851 that from 1822 until the present time the same kind of wheat had been cultivated, first known as Mountain Purplestraw and more lately designated Early Purplestraw. Alternate information suggested that Mountain Bluestem was the name under which the variety was first grown. That name was still being used in some sections in the early 1900’s, although the prefix 'Mountain' had generally been dropped many years before. J. Allen Clark wrote in 1919 that the variety had continued to be an important wheat in the southeastern United States for about 100 years.

    In 1919, Purplestraw was grown on 273,800 acres in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia. Purplestraw continued to be grown on 11,796 acres in 1959.

    By 1919, Purplestraw was synonymously known as Alabama Bluestem, Bluestem, Early Purplestraw, Georgia Bluestem, Georgia Red, Mountain Purplestraw and Ripley.

    Alabama Bluestem was a name commonly used for Purplestraw wheat in Alabama.

    Bluestem was the general name used as a synonym for Purplestraw by many growers of the variety in the Southeastern States.

    Early Purplestraw was used for the variety, but by the early 1900’s, the word 'Early' had been dropped.

    Georgia Bluestem and Georgia Red were names commonly used by growers of Purplestraw wheat in Georgia.

    Ripley was a local name used for Purplestraw in York County, South Carolina.

    Purplestraw possesses facultative characteristics. Since it does not require vernalization, it can be grown as a spring wheat; or, because of its winter hardiness, can be fall sown even in the northern soft wheat states. Its principle advantage over other varieties in the early 1900’s was its early maturity, which was said to be due in part to its spring habit. Purplestraw will produce intensely reddish or purple stems that will disappear if wet weather conditions occur at harvest time.

    A five-gram sample of Purplestraw (CI # 1915) was obtained in 1986 and was grown several years in Wooster, Ohio. It was multiplied one year by Dr. Mark Sorrells at Cornell University and was also grown one year by Dr. Jerry Johnson in Georgia. The 1000-kernel weight averaged 37 grams. Milling quality was good and was comparable to Delta Queen, Patton and Dyna Gro 411. Granularity was similar to Foster, Pioneer 25R49 and Superior. AWRC values were very low which indicated that it had good soft wheat flour characteristics. However, the flour protein averaged about 3 percentage points higher than practically all of the contemporary cultivars; thus, the cookie spread was very small. Purplestraw was characterized by weak gluten strength.

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    Quantum 9723

    This cultivar was released some time ago and has average test weight with small kernel size. Milling quality was good and had above average break flour yield. Cookie spread was slightly smaller than the average soft wheat and the gluten strength would be slightly above average.

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    Rachel

    Rachel appeared to have a very high normalized test weight of 3.3 pounds. The data for Rachel was limited but very few cultivars possess test weight of this magnitude. An example of cultivars that have that type of test weight would be Coker 9184, Hoffman 89 and Tribute. Rachel appeared to be very strong in gluten strength (7.5 mixograph number).

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    Raven

    Raven was introduced by Ebberts Field Seeds of Ohio. There was a Raven (SWQL designated #1) from Illinois (2000) but the two did not appear to be identical. Raven (SWQL designated #2) had test weight that will be about 1 pound above the 60 pound test weight of the reference cultivars. Kernel weight was large being 41 grams. Break-flour was somewhat below the average of all soft wheat of 32% and cookie spread was about average. Gluten strength was fairly strong having an adjusted lactic acid SRC of 113%. Elkhart, Pioneer 2643, Rachel and Warwick had gluten strength similar to Raven (#2).

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    Red May

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Red May was believed to be identical with or descended from the Red or Yellow Lammas. Several writers suggested the identity. S. M. Tracy, in 1881, mentioned Yellow Lammas as being a synonym of Red May. The Lammas was mentioned by Friedrich Koernicke and Hugo Werner, in 1885, as being a very old English wheat grown previously to 1699. Both the Red and Yellow Lammas were grown in Virginia many years before the Revolutionary War. A White May wheat of a latter period, according to N. F. Cabell in his publication 'Early History of Agriculture in Virginia', was grown in that state as early as 1764. A more recent history of Red May indicated that it was originated by General Rawson Harmon from the Virginia May (a white-kerneled wheat) about 1830. That wheat had been grown quite widely under the name Red May since 1845.

    By 1919, Red May occupied 1,165,900 acres in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, and was grown under many synonyms in Connecticut, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Red May occupied 1,922 acres in 1959.

    Red May, in 1919, was also known as Beechwood (in part), Canadian Hybrid, Early Harvest, Early May, Early Ripe, Enterprise, Jones Longberry, May, Michigan Amber, Michigan Wonder, Orange, Pride of Indiana, Red Amber, Red Cross, Red Republic and Republican Red. Other synonyms were used but their use had been discontinued by the first part of the 1900’s. Those synonyms were Whig, Kentucky Red, Carolina and Rappahannock.

    Beechwood usually was a mixed wheat containing some Red May. Beechwood was a synonym for the Poole variety.

    Early May was commonly used as a synonym for both Red May and White May from 1843 to 1857. In 1854 a different White May was claimed to have been originated by Charles H. Boughton, Essex County, Virginia. That variety was also known as Boughton and Tappahannock, but was not Red May.

    Early Ripe was recorded as having been introduced into Darke County, Ohio, in 1840. During the next 18 years, it became distributed over the State as Whig, Kentucky Red, and Carolina.

    Samples obtained from the Ohio and Missouri Agricultural Experiment Stations were identical with Red May.

    Jones Longberry was wrongly applied to Red May since the two varieties of Longberry put out by A. N. Jones, of New York, were awned varieties, and Red May was awnless.

    Orange wheat was reported as having been introduced into Monroe County, New York, from Virginia in 1845. In 1857 Klippart reported Orange wheat to be a beardless, white-grained winter wheat grown in Ohio. The Orange variety in the early 1900’s had red kernels and was identical to Red May. Orange (Red May) was one of the excellent-yielding beardless varieties of wheat for Missouri in 1910.

    The name Red Cross was sometimes wrongly applied to Red May wheat. In the early 1900’s the John A. Salzer Seed Co., seedsman, of La Crosse, Wisconsin, reported that they had been selling a wheat under the name Red Cross since 1893. It was identical with Red May. They bought the seed from a J. J. Barron, who claimed to have originated it. J. J. Barron stated that it was done by crossing three varieties. There was no evidence given to prove that the crosses were made.

    Pride of Indiana was acquired from the Indiana and Missouri Agricultural Experiment Stations and was the same as Red May. It may have been a name used for wheat through error, as it was a name of an important variety of corn in Indiana.

    In 1986, Red May (CI # 5336) was acquired from the National Small Grains Collection and, once multiplied, was grown with hundreds of contemporary cultivars. The field yield was about 50% of the more recent cultivars. The kernel weight of Red May seemed to be similar to Armor 4045, Coker 9474, Julie IV and Pennmore.

    Milling evaluation placed it with Goldfield, Mackinnon, Patterson and Wakefield. All were good milling cultivars. Flour granularity was similar to that of Mediterranean. Contemporary cultivars with similar softness included Arthur, Delta Queen, FFR 566W and USG 3209. Flour protein appeared to be about 2.5 percentage points higher than the modern cultivars. The cookie spread baking test revealed Red May to be very small. That could be attributed to the high flour protein since the AWRC was one of the lowest of all soft wheat varieties. Gluten strength was about medium.

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    Renwood 3260

    Renwood 3260 was from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and has a normalized test weight of 1.6 pounds. It has very good milling quality and has strong gluten strength.

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    Renwood 3434

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar Renwood Brand 3434 (Renwood ‘3434’) was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’/’Coker 9835’//VA96W-270. Parentage of VA96W-270 is VA88-54-612 (‘Massey’*2/’Balkan’) /’FFR511W’. Renwood ‘3434’ is a broadly adapted, high yielding, short stature, full-season soft red winter wheat cultivar that provides producers and end users in the mid-South, mid-Atlantic, Northeast, and Corn-Belt regions of the U.S. with a stiff-straw cultivar having good baking quality. Head emergence of Renwood ‘3434’ (124 d, Julian) is 1 day later than ‘McCormick’ and 1 day earlier than Roane. Plant height of Renwood ‘3434’ is very short (28 inches) and on average is 2 inches shorter than ‘USG 3209’ and 6 inches shorter than SS ‘MPV57’. Straw strength (0 – 9) of Renwood ‘3434’ is better than that of USG 3209 (1.7 vs. 2.5) in the southern region and that of Roane (1.9 vs. 4.1) in the eastern SRW winter wheat region.

    Renwood ‘3434’ was evaluated at 17 locations in the 2006-07 USDA-ARS Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery, and ranked 7th among 39 entries for grain yield (66.3 Bu/ac). Renwood ‘3434’ produced yields that were similar to or significantly higher than the test averages at all 17 locations. Average test weight of Renwood ‘3434’ (57.5 Lb/Bu) was most similar to that of USG 3209 (58.1 Lb/Bu). Renwood ‘3434’ also was evaluated at 22 locations in the 2006-07 USDA-ARS Uniform Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery, and ranked 20th among 44 entries for grain yield (72.1 Bu/ac). Renwood ‘3434’ produced yields similar to or significantly higher than the test averages at 21 of the 22 test sites. Average test weight of Renwood ‘3434’ (57.9 Lb/Bu) was similar to those of check cultivars Patton (57.7 Lb/Bu) and Foster (58.1 Lb/Bu). On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 4 of the 19 southern nursery locations and at 9 of the 22 eastern nursery test sites, winter hardiness of Renwood ‘3434’ (2.8 and 2.1, respectively) is similar to that of McCormick (2.7) and slightly less than that of Roane (1.7).

    Renwood ‘3434’ is resistant to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). It is moderately resistant to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), stem rust (Puccinia graminis), Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Soil Borne Mosaic Virus, Septoria tritici leaf blotch, and Stagonospora nodorum glume blotch. Renwood ‘3434’ has expressed a moderate level of resistance to Fusarium head blight [Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe)] with disease index scores (0 – 100) ranging from 2.1 to 21.5 and DON toxin concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5 ppm in Virginia Tech’s inoculated, mist-irrigated FHB nursery. Renwood ‘3434’ is moderately susceptible to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) and black chaff (Xanthomonas campestris). It is susceptible to Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)].

    On the basis of five independent milling and baking quality evaluations over three crop years (2005-2007), Renwood ‘3434’ has exhibited acceptable milling and good pastry baking qualities. While endosperm separation indices (10.5 to 10.9%) of Renwood ‘3434’ tend to be high, it has soft grain texture (70.8% – 88.0%) and moderately high break flour yields (31.4% – 32.7%). Straight grade flour yields of Renwood ‘3434’ from an Allis Chalmers Mill have been 75.7% to 76.2%. Flour protein concentration of Renwood ‘3434’ is moderately low and has varied from 7.57% to 9.46%. Gluten strength of Renwood ‘3434’ is moderately weak with Lactic Acid Retention Capacity values varying from 98.8% to 110.1%. The aforementioned quality attributes of Renwood ‘3434’ and the low Sucrose Retention Capacity (85.8% – 88.5%) of its flour contribute to its good pastry baking quality as exemplified by relatively high values for cookie spread diameter (17.08 – 18.81 cm).

    Description by: Carl Griffey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

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    Renwood 3706

    This Virginia cultivar has a normalized test weight of 2.0 pounds, possesses excellent milling and has medium-strong gluten characteristics.

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    RS908

    • Maturity – Early
    • Head Type – Awnless
    • Test Weight – Heavy
    • Height – Medium
    • Standability – Excellent
    • Disease Resistance – head scab (MS), powdery mildew (MR), Septoria (R)

    Description by: John King, Rupp Seeds

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    RS953

    • Maturity – Medium-Early
    • Head Type – Awnless
    • Test Weight – Heavy
    • Height – Medium
    • Standability – Excellent
    • Disease Resistance – head scab (MR), powdery mildew (MR), Septoria (MR)

    Description by: John King, Rupp Seeds

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    RS978

    • Maturity – Early
    • Head Type – Awnless
    • Test Weight – Heavy
    • Height – Medium-Tall
    • Standability – Excellent
    • Disease Resistance – head scab (MS), powdery mildew (MR), Septoria (MR)

    Description by: John King, Rupp Seeds

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    Rupp 935

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    • Grain yield: very high yielding line
    • Winter hardiness: very good
    • Lodging resistance: very good
    • Disease resistance: Moderate Resistance to head scab and powdery mildew
    • Morphology: awned
    • Plant height: medium
    • Heading date: medium early
    • Status of breeder seed: released in 2009

    Description by: John King, Rupp Seeds

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    Rupp 967

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    • Grain yield: very high yielding line
    • Winter hardiness: very good
    • Lodging resistance: very good
    • Disease resistance: Resistant to head scab, Moderate Resistance to powdery mildew
    • Morphology: awned,
    • Plant height: medium
    • Heading date: medium
    • Status of breeder seed: released in 2009

    Description by: John King, Rupp Seeds

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    Rupp Seed 931

    Rupp Seed 931 will be similar to the reference cultivars in normalized test weight. It has superior milling quality similar to Pioneer 25R23 and Southern States 520. RS 931 has good sugar snap cookie quality and the gluten strength was weak.

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    Rupp Seed 947

    Rupp Seeds introduced this cultivar that had normalized test weight of about 60.5 pounds. Kernel weight was small. Break-flour yield and cookie spread were average. Flour protein may be slightly low and gluten strength was medium.

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    Rupp Seed 949

    RS 949 was another Rupp Seeds cultivar and had test weight that would be about 2 pounds greater than the reference cultivars. Flour granularity was average and cookie spread will likely be on the smaller side. Gluten strength was about medium.

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    RUSSIAN RED

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Russian Red usually was grown under the name 'Red Russian', but there were other distinct varieties that were also called Red Russian that were grown primarily in the Pacific Northwest. Those Red Russian and associated synonym varieties had clavate spikes while Russian Red did not. It was decided that the two similar names would remain intact.

    E. H. Collins offered the seed for sale in 1898 and reported the history of Russian Red:

    'In answers to questions, allow me to say that the Red Russian (Russian Red) wheat I advertise in the Farmer was selected by an agent sent by the American Seed Co., of Rochester, New York, to Russia to secure their best wheat. It was introduced in this section by a prominent mill in Indianapolis at $1.50 a bushel. They paid 1 cent extra for a few years to encourage its more general introduction. It has of late years sold at the seed stores at a 2-cent premium and does this year. It is hardy, smooth, medium hard, and very productive. The only fault I found in growing it 12 years is that it shatters when cut dead ripe, so that I often grow half of my crop Fultz, which can wait. Lately, however, I grow all Russian.'

    Red Russian (Russian Red) was grown by the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station as early as 1888. It was distributed widely by Peter Henderson & Co., seedsmen, of New York City, and J. A. Everitt & Co., seedsmen, of Indianapolis, Indiana, in the early 1890’s. In 1919, Russian Red occupied 172,100 acres in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. Russian Red was grown on 3,408 acres in 1954. Russian Red was only known by one other name in the eastern part of the United States, Red Russian.

    In the late 1980’s a sample of Russian Red was acquired from the National Collection and multiplied several years. The 1000-kernel weight was one of the largest in comparison with all other soft wheats at 43.8 grams. It had fair milling properties similar to those of Clark, Ernie, INW 9824 and Pioneer 2545. Flour granularity was quite typical for soft wheat. Flour protein was about .5% higher than most soft wheat while AWRC was normal. Cookie spread (sugar snap diameter x 2) was very small averaging about 1 cm less on diameter than the average soft wheat.

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    Santee

    It is not known when Santee was released but likely has been available for a few years and may be considered a semi-hard cultivar. Santee has above average kernel size very coarse flour granulation. Flour protein for this single sample was about 10%, but that may not have been representative. Gluten strength may be about medium-strong.

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    Saranac

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    Morphology: This variety is very similar to Caledonia in appearance, and plant height is the primary distinguishing feature. Plant height is about 85 cm compared to 77 cm for Caledonia and 88 cm for Richland. This line is awnless and has white chaff color. Heading date similar to Caledonia or Richland.

    Pedigree: NY7387/Caledonia//Caledonia-2///Caledonia 7-12 (BC2F4 selection). This is the second molecular marker assisted variety developed by Cornell.

    Grain Yield: In three years of testing, this line averaged 3 b/a higher grain yield than Jensen, 1 b/a higher than Richland, and 3 b/a below Caledonia.

    Test Weight: Averaging 1 lb/bu below Caledonia.

    Winter Hardiness: Winter survival is similar to current varieties.

    Lodging Resistance: NY03179FHB-12 is similar to Caledonia and Richland and better than Jensen for lodging resistance.

    Disease Resistance: NY03179FHB-12 is much more resistant to Fusarium head blight (scab) than Caledonia with half the incidence and very low severity scores. It is rated as resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus and Wheat Soil Borne Mosaic Virus. This variety is moderately resistant to powdery mildew. Reaction to other diseases is unknown.

    Quality Characteristics: NY03179FHB-12 was evaluated for milling and baking quality in 2006 and 2007 and appears to have satisfactory milling and baking properties comparable to Caledonia. It is moderately susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting, slightly better than Caledonia.

    Status of Breeder Seed: Approximately five acres of Breeder seed were planted in the fall of 2008 in New York and 100 acres were planted in Michigan. This line will be offered to the New York seed industry as a non-exclusive release variety with Breeder, Foundation, and Certified classes. PVP is pending.

    Name: We have approval for the name “Saranac”. The PVP application will be submitted fall 2011.

    Description by: Mark E. Sorrells, Cornell University

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    Savage

    The 1000 kernel weight for Savage was 30.6g. This smaller kernelled cultivar would be similar in grain size to: Ag-Alumni 9112, Caldwell and Mitchell. Limited data indicated the test weight of Savage to be very high. The correlation between test weight and 1000 kernel weight for 690 cultivars (shrivel-free) was r = .09. Savage may be about medium-strong in gluten strength.

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    SC 1301

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    • SC1301 Grain yield: above average yields of 80 bushel in research testing.
    • Winter hardiness: very good
    • Lodging resistance: good
    • Disease resistance: exceptional tolerance to stripe rust, powdery mildew and head scab, only average tolerance to Septoria tritici.
    • Quality characteristics: test weight consistently above 60 pounds; on siemer milling premium list.
    • Morphology: smooth head type.
    • Plant height: 37”
    • Heading date: early variety, per Julian maturity, 111.
    • Status of breeder seed: 3 years of testing, released in 2010.

    Description by: Bill Mullen, Seed Consultants

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    SC 1330

    Soft Red Wheat

    There was not enough test weight data for proper evaluation of this Seed Consultants’ soft red wheat. Milling quality was very good having a mill score of 75. Break-flour yield was above average and cookie quality was larger than the average soft wheat. Gluten strength was very weak having an Allis-Chalmers lactic acid SRC of 69%. The lactic acid SRC range for soft wheat from the Allis-Chalmers mill has been about 60% for the white cultivar Genesee to 133% for the soft red cultivar Arise W34 adjusted to 9% flour protein.

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    SC 1343

    SC 1343 was another line from Seed Consultants and had very good milling quality. The 1000-kernel weight was 36 grams. It was softer than the average soft wheat and the cookie spread was slightly below average. Gluten strength was weak-medium having a lactic acid SRC of 86%.

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    SC 1352

    This Seed Consultants cultivar had normalized test weight around 62.0 pounds. The kernel weight was large being 38 grams per thousand grains. The milling quality was very good and the flour granularity was slightly coarser than the average for soft wheat. Cookie quality may be on the smaller side while gluten strength was medium-strong having a lactic acid SRC of 105%.

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    Seebree

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Seebree is a soft red, awnled winter wheat of medium height and very early maturity and high yield. It has excellent winter hardiness very good test weight and good resistance to lodging. Disease resistance is excelllent against Septoria glume and leaf blotch as well as soil borne mosaic virus and barley yellow dwarf virus. Seebree has very good resistance to stem and leaf rusts, powdery mimldew, and Hessian fly. The cultivar is extemely early and high yielding, works well in North and South and has excellent double-crop potential.

    Description by: Steyer Seed

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    Seed Consultants 1311

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    • Grain yield: consistently above average yields in producer fields.
    • Winter hardiness: very good
    • Lodging resistance: very good
    • Disease resistance: excellent tolerance to head scab, powdery mildew and glume blotch; average tolerance to Septoria tritici and leaf rust.
    • Quality characteristics: very high test weight
    • Morphology: awnless
    • Plant height: 37”
    • Heading date: medium early variety, per Julian maturity, 112.
    • Status of breeder seed: 3 years testing, released in 2010.

    Description by: Bill Mullen, Seed Consultants

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    Seed Consultants 1321

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    SC1321 is a very high yielding variety, in 2010 Kentucky wheat trials SC 1321 was 6th out of 83 entries in summary of 5 location trials.

    • Winter hardiness: very good
    • Lodging resistance: excellent
    • Disease resistance: very good tolerance to leaf rust, powdery mildew, and glume blotch; average tolerance to Septoria and head scab.
    • Quality characteristics: above average test weight.
    • Morphology: awned
    • Plant height: 33”
    • Heading date: medium early variety, per Julian maturity, 112.
    • Status of breeder seed: 3 years testing, released in 2010.

    Description by: Bill Mullen, Seed Consultants

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    Seed Consultants 1325

    Seed Consultants introduced SC 1325 that will probably be about 2 pounds greater than the 60 pound reference wheats. Kernel size was average. Flour granularity appeared to be coarse and cookie quality was slightly below average. Flour protein may be elevated slightly and gluten strength was a little above medium.

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    Seed Consultants 1341

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    SC 1341 grain yield: in 2010 Kentucky wheat trial, 5 location summary, SC 1341 was 25th at 87.5 bushel; 2010 OH wheat trial, 5 location summary, SC 1341 was 11th at 76.7 bushel. Very high yielding line.

    • Winter hardiness: very good
    • Lodging resistance: excellent
    • Disease resistance: very good tolerance to head scab, Septoria tritici, and stripe rust; average tolerance to powdery mildew.
    • Quality characteristics: above average test weight.
    • Morphology: awned
    • Plant height: 33”
    • Heading date: medium late variety, per Julian maturity, 114.
    • Status of breeder seed: 3 years testing, 2010 release.

    Description by: Bill Mullen, Seed Consultants

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    Shur Grow 1560

    Shur Grow 1560 has a high genetic test weight at 2.7 pounds and would be similar to AGS 2000 and Geneva. It has superior milling quality similar to FL 302. SG 1560 had good cookie spread and the gluten strength was medium.

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    Smoke

    Soft White Wheat

    This soft white wheat appeared to have good test weight. The milling quality was very good and possessing very soft flour granulation. Cookie spread was above normal for soft wheat and the gluten strength was below average.

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    Soissons

    Soissons, semi-hard wheat, was introduced into the United States from France. Soissons seemed to be slightly lower in test weight from the reference cultivars and slightly smaller than average kernel weight. Soissons had one of the highest milling scores of any soft wheat or hard wheat cultivar evaluated at the SWQL. The soft cultivars Argee, Pioneer 26R46 and Severn have had milling scores of 100 for an individual sample. The ESI of 4.9% was unequalled and the friability of 30.9% was most unusual for a very coarse granulating cultivar. The cookie baking potential was similar for good quality soft wheat. Flour protein was similar to the soft wheats and water absorption was low at 54%. The lactic acid SRC of 109% indicated Soissons to be medium-strong in gluten strength.

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    Southern States 5205

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar Southern States Brand 5205 (SS‘5205’) was derived from the three-way cross Pioneer Brand ‘2684’/VA93-54-185//’Pocahontas’. Parentage of VA93-54-185 is ‘Wheeler’/3/’Massey’*3/’Balkan’//’Saluda’. SS‘5205’ is a broadly adapted, high yielding, short stature, mid-season soft red winter wheat cultivar that provides producers and end users in the Deep South, mid-South, mid-Atlantic, and southern Corn Belt regions of the U.S. with a cultivar having very good milling and baking qualities. In the southern SRW wheat region, SS ‘5205’ on average is 0 to 1 days earlier heading than ‘McCormick’ and 1 to 4 days later than ‘USG 3209’. Plant height of SS‘5205’ (30 inch) on average is 1 to 2 inches shorter than those of USG 3209 and McCormick and 5 to 6 inches shorter than SS ‘MPV57’. Straw strength (0-9 scale) of SS‘5205’ (1.4) in the eastern SRW on average is better than those of USG 3209 (2.1) and McCormick (2.4).

    SS‘5205’ was evaluated at 17 locations in the 2006-07 USDA-ARS Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery, and ranked 6th among 39 entries for grain yield (66.8 Bu/ac). SS‘5205’ produced yields that were similar to or significantly higher than the test averages at all 17 locations. SS‘5205’ also was evaluated in this uniform nursery in 2005-06 over 26 locations, and ranked 13th among 45 entries for grain yield (79.8 Bu/ac). SS‘5205’ produced yields similar to or significantly higher than the test average at 24 of the 26 test sites. Average test weight of SS‘5205’ in both years (59.1 Lb/Bu) was similar to that of McCormick and higher than that of USG 3209 (58.1 Lb/Bu). On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 4 of the 19 locations in 2007 and at 3 of the 26 test sites in 2006, winter hardiness of SS‘5205’ (5.1 and 1.0, respectively) is similar to that of USG 3209 and Pioneer 26R61, but less than that of McCormick (2.7 and 0.7).

    SS‘5205’ is resistant to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis). SS‘5205’ has expressed moderate resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis), stem rust (Puccinia graminis), Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus, Soil Borne Mosaic Virus, Septoria tritici leaf blotch, and Stagonospora nodorum glume blotch. It has expressed a moderate level of resistance to Fusarium head blight [Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe)] with disease index scores (0 – 100) ranging from 2.7 to 16 and DON toxin concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 1.3 ppm in Virginia Tech’s inoculated, mist-irrigated FHB nursery. SS’5205’ is moderately susceptible to black chaff (Xanthomonas campestris) and Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)].

    On the basis of eight independent milling and baking quality evaluations over five crop years (2003-2007), SS‘5205’ has consistently exhibited very good milling and pastry baking quality.

    The very good to excellent milling quality of SS‘5205’ is attributed to its soft grain texture, low endosperm separation indices (9.1%), high break flour yields (32.6 – 36.6%), and high straight grade flour yields (77.2 – 78.9%) on an Allis mill. Flour protein concentration of SS‘5205’ (8.61%) is lower than that of McCormick (9.23%), yet on the basis of Lactic Acid Retention Capacity, gluten strength of SS‘5205’ (113.3%) is higher than that of McCormick (109.7%). Thus, flour from SS‘5205’ likely can be used in the production of crackers, requiring moderate to high gluten strength, as well as production of excellent pastry products such as cookies and cakes.

    Description by: Carl Griffey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

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    Southern States 8302

    This cultivar has a normalized test weight of 1.5 pounds and large kernel weight of about 39 grams. It has very soft characteristics, good cookie spread and medium gluten strength.

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    Southern States 8308

    Preliminary evaluation indicated that SS 8308 has unusually high genetic test weight at 3.3 pounds (normalized). Out of about 700 cultivars analyzed over many years and numerous locations for genetically associated test weight, there were only about 21 cultivars that would have a higher test weight than SS 8308. It also produced good cookie spread and was medium in gluten quality.

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    Southern States 8404

    This cultivar may have very large kernel weight and had excellent milling quality. The flour granularity will likely be above average and had good cookie diameter. The lactic acid SRC was 83% and would suggest below average gluten strength.

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    SR7360J

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    Steyer Kenton

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Kenton is a soft red, awnless winter wheat with tall height and late maturity. Kenton has some resistance to pests, aggressive tillering and is excellent for straw. It is a high yielding variety with heavy test weight and excellent winter hardiness and standability.

    Description by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

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    Steyer Marion

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Marion is is a soft red, medium height, awnless winter wheat with medium maturity. It has excellent winter hardiness, resistance to lodging and very good test weight. Disease resistance to powdery mildew is excelent, very good to leaf and stem rust, Septoria leaf blotch, soil borne mosaic virus, barley yellow dwarf virus and good to Hessian fly and good to Septoria glume blotch. Marion has wide geographic adaptability, very high yield potential and great eye appeal.

    Description by: Steyer Seed

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    Stine 480

    Stine 480 may be a hybrid wheat. Normalized test weight was .7 pounds meaning that it would average about .7 pound higher in test weight than the reference cultivars. It had very good milling quality and appeared to have weak gluten.

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    Strategy

    Strategy seemed to originate at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and released through a Canadian seed company. There was limited test weight data that suggested the test weight may be about 2.5 pounds greater in test weight than the reference cultivars.

    The kernel weight appeared to be fairly large being 39 grams. Break-flour yield, cookie and gluten strength were about average.

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    Strike 205

    Burtch Seed Company introduced Strike 205 and had a normalized shrivel-free test weight of 61.6#. Flour granularity was average and had good cookie baking potential. Gluten strength was slightly above medium.

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    Sunburst

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Sunburst is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Sunbeam Extract Company of Wooster, Ohio. Sunburst is widely adapted to the Eastern Corn Belt, more specifically to Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania and parts of Canada. Sunburst is intended for the general-purpose wheat market.

    Sunburst originated from the cross Taishang1/GR863//Cardinal, made in Wooster, Ohio in 1991, and was designated as SE91-1942-4. Sunburst has blue-green head color, an erect-twisted flag leaf, short height, excellent straw strength and is awnless. Green stage variants include: 0.05% yellow green tall, 0.05% yellow reen, 0.05% yellow green awned, 0.35% yellow green, 0.6% tall awned, 0.1% tall for a combined variant total of 0.6%.

    Sunburst was selected due to its excellent winter hardiness, excellent test weight, high yield potential, good scab resistance and leaf stripe resistance. Ohio Foundation seed will maintain breeder seed. The Certified classes of seed will be Foundation, Registered and Certified.

    Description by: Howard Lafever, Sunbeam Extract Company

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    SY 1526

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    SY1526 is a soft red winter wheat bred and developed by Syngenta Seeds, Inc. SY 1526 was selected for height, maturity, appearance, and kernel soundness using a modified bulk breeding method that originated with a single cross made in December of 1998. SY 1526 is a medium tall semidwarf variety and has white chaff at maturity. It has medium early maturity and its heading is less than a day later than Branson’s. SY 1526 has shown best adaptation to the area south of Interstate 70 in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky. It has shown moderate resistance to the races of leaf rust in this area, and moderate susceptibility to soil borne mosaic virus. Based on observations and data from southern Illinois in 2009, it may be resistant to wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Juvenile growth habit is semi-erect. Plant color at boot stage is green. Anther color is yellow. Auricle anthocyanin is absent and auricle hairs are present. Flag leaf at boot stage is recurved and twisted. Head shape is tapering and apically awnletted. Glumes are midlong in length and midwide in width. Glume shoulder shape is square with an obtuse beak. Chaff color is white at maturity. Seed shape is ovate. Brush hairs on the seed are long in length and occupy a medium area of the seed tip. Seed depth is shallow and width is narrow. Seed cheeks are rounded. SY 1526 has been uniform and stable since 2009. Approximately 0.8% of the plants were rogued from the Breeder’s seed increase in 2009. Approximately 95% of the rogued variant plants were taller height wheat plants (8 to 15 cm) and 5% were awned. Up to 1.0% variant plants may be encountered in subsequent generations.

    Syngenta Seeds, Inc. maintains seed stock and certified classes of Foundation, Registered and Certified. Certified seed stocks of SY 1526 will be available in the fall of 2012. Certified acreage is not to be published by AOSCA and certifying agencies and SY 1526 may only be sold as a class of certified seed and all seed sales are royalty bearing.

    Description by: Syngenta

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    SY 9978

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    SY 9978 is a white-chaffed soft red winter wheat bred and developed by Syngenta Seeds, Inc. It is a medium maturing, medium tall height semidwarf with good test weight patterns. It has good resistance to powdery mildew, Hessian fly and stripe rust. SY 9978 has shown moderate resistant to moderate susceptibility to leaf rust and Septoria tritici. Milling and baking characteristics are good. This variety is intended for grain production.

    Yield testing of SY 9978 was initiated in the 2004-2005 season at the F8 generation at 4 locations in the Southern US. Advanced and elite yield testing has been conducted since this time. In 2007 Arcadia was tested at 24 locations and since has been tested in up to 28 locations to determine that Arcadia is adapted to the upper Delta and the northern East Coast areas. The cross was selected for height, appearance, maturity, and kernel soundness using a bulk breeding method. In 2009, SY 9978 was entered in the USDA Uniform Southern and Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery and SY 9978 (as B040798*) was tested in state-run official wheat trials in Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, and Pennsylvania in 2009-2010.

    SY 9978 has a juvenile growth habit that is semi-erect. Plant color at boot stage is blue green. Flag leaf at boot stage is erect and twisted. Auricle anthocyanin and auricle hairs are present. Waxy bloom is present on the head, stem and flag leaf sheath. Anther color is yellow. Head shape is tapering, mid-dense and awned. Glumes are glabrous, wide in width and long in length with oblique shoulders and acuminate beaks. Chaff color is white in color. Seed shape is ovate. Seed cheek is rounded. Seed crease depth is shallow and seed crease width is narrow.

    Description by: June Hancock, Syngenta

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    Syngenta W1377

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    W1377 is a soft red winter wheat bred by Syngenta Seeds, Inc., for grain and wheat straw production. W1377 has consistently produced very high test weight grain. It is a medium-tall height wheat with medium heading (about two days later than Branson). W1377 has shown very good resistance to stripe rust. It has shown moderate resistance to leaf rust in the Midwest and upper Midsouth. W1377 has shown susceptibility to powdery mildew in Michigan and the Northeast. It has demonstrated very good forage and straw production in the Kentucky trials. At maturity its straw has an attractive “snowy” bright color.

    Description by: Barton Fogleman, AgriPro COKER Syngenta Seeds, Inc

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    Terral LA 422

    This cultivar originated in Arkansas. Kernel weight was 38 grams per thousand. Milling quality was excellent having a mill score of 81.4. Only 10% of the 830 soft cultivars had mill scores exceeding 80. Flour granularity and sugar-snap cookie spread were average. Gluten strength was weak-medium having a lactic acid SRC of 85%.

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    Truman

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The University of Missouri released this soft red winter cultivar that has a high level of resistance to Fusarium Head Blight. The test weight will likely be about 1.1 pounds higher than the reference cultivars on a 'genetic' basis. The gluten strength appeared to be about medium.

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    TS 3060

    TS 3060 was introduced by Thompson Seed and will likely be similar to the reference cultivars in test weight. It possesses excellent sugar snap cookie spread and was about medium in gluten strength.

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    TS 4040

    Thompson Seeds introduced TS 4040 and it had good normalized test weight of 62.0 pounds. Reference cultivars are 60.0 pounds. Kernel weight was about average and Allis-Chalmers break-flour yield was very coarse. Cookie quality may be slightly smaller than the average soft wheat and gluten strength was weak-medium.

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    USG 3120

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    GA 991209-6E33 is a medium maturing soft red winter wheat that is white chaffed and medium in height. It was derived from the cross GA 901146 / GA 9006 // AGS 2000. Its maturity is two days earlier than AGS 2000. GA 991209-6E33 has excellent resistant to current biotypes of Hessian fly in Georgia, including biotype L, and is resistant to races of leaf rust and stripe rust. It is also resistant to Soil-borne Mosaic Virus and susceptible to powdery mildew.

    GA 991209-6E33 has good milling and baking quality which is similar to AGS 2000. GA 991209-6E33, in comparison to AGS 2000, is equal in flour yield (71.9% vs. 73.1%), slightly lower in softness equivalent score (56.8% vs. 58.9%), equal in flour protein (8.3% vs. 8.9%), slightly lower in lactic acid retention (102% vs. 113%) and equal in sucrose retention capacity (91% vs. 94%).

    Description by: Jerry Johnson, University of Georgia

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    USG 3295

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USG 3295 (GA951395-3E25) is a medium-late maturing, awnless soft red winter wheat with white chaffed and short in height with excellent test weight. It was derived from the cross, GA 87110 / VA93-52-55// GA 88151. The pedigree of GA 87110 is GA-Andy / GA-Gore; VA 93-52-55 is Massey*3 / Balkan//Saluda; and GA 88151 is Hunter // FengKang 7 / GA-Gore. GA 88151 / Hickory//AGS 2000. Its maturity is 3 days later than AGS 2000. USG 3295 is resistant to races of leaf rust and stripe rust in the southeast U.S. It is also resistant to Soil-borne Mosaic Virus and powdery mildew. It is susceptible to current biotypes of Hessian fly in Georgia. USG 3295 has excellent milling and baking quality. USG 3295 is equal to Patton in flour yield (71.5% vs 70.6%), equal in softness equivalent score (51.2% vs 54.9%), lower flour protein (8.7% vs 9.2%), and equal in lactic acid retention (95% vs 93%).

    Description by: Jerry Johnson, University of Georgia

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    USG 3315

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar SW049029104, previously designated VA04W-90, was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. It was derived from the cross ‘38158’ (PI 619052=SS 520) / Pioneer Brand ‘2552’ // ‘Roane’. Cultivar SW049029104 has been evaluated in Virginia’s Official State Variety Trial since 2006, and was evaluated in the 2008-2009 USDA-ARS Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery. Wheat cultivar SW049029104 is widely adapted and provides producers and end users in the mid to deep South, mid-Atlantic, and southern Corn Belt regions of the U.S. with a FHB resistant cultivar that has high yield potential and good milling and pastry baking qualities. Foundation seed of SW049029104 was first distributed to seedsmen in fall 2009. SW049029104 will be marketed by UniSouth Genetics (USG 3315), Seedway (SW52) and Growmark (FS888).

    Wheat cultivar SW049029104 (VA04W-90) is a broadly adapted, high yielding, moderately short, mid-season soft red winter wheat. At physiological maturity, SW049029104 has purple straw color and its tapering awnletted spikes are creamy white in color. Head emergence of SW049029104 in Virginia (121 d, Julian) is most similar to that of ‘Tribute’, and on average is 1 day later heading than ‘USG 3209’. Plant height of SW049029104 (34 inches) on average is 2 inches taller than USG 3209 and 1 inch shorter than SS Brand 520 (‘38158’) and ‘AGS2000’. Straw strength (0=Erect to 9=completely lodged) of SW049029104 (0 to 2) is very good. In Virginia, SW049029104 had a three year average (2006-2008) grain yield (88 Bu/ac) that was similar to the overall entry mean, and its average test weight (59.8 Lb/Bu) was 1.2 Lb/Bu higher than that of SS Brand 520 (‘38158’). In the 2009 USDA-ARS Uniform Southern SRW Wheat Nursery conducted over 25 locations, SW049029104 ranked 1st among 40 entries for grain yield (72.8 Bu/ac) and 4th for test weight (56.9 Lb/Bu). Winter hardiness of SW049029104 (winter kill score of 4.6 where 0=No injury to 9=Complete kill) is moderate in comparison to AGS2000 (5.2) and Pioneer Brand ‘26R61’ (5.5).

    Wheat cultivar SW049029104 is resistant to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) with mean ratings (0=immunity to 9=very susceptible) ranging from 0 to 1.5. Reaction of SW049029104 to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) has ranged from a mean of 1.5 to 5.8. It is moderately resistant to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (1.0 - 3.6), Septoria tritici leaf blotch (3.5 - 4.5), Stagonospora nodorum leaf (3.0) and glume (2.0 - 4.0) blotches, and Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (3.3). It is resistant to Fusarium head blight [Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe)] having disease index scores (0 – 100) ranging from 5 to 8 and DON toxin concentrations from 0.1 to 0.6 ppm in Virginia. In the 2009 Uniform Southern Nursery, SW049029104 had a mean FHB rating (0=No infection to 9=Severe infection) of 3.7 and a Fusarium Damaged Kernel rating of 9.1%. Reaction of SW049029104 to Hessian fly [Mayetiola destructor (Say)] in field tests has varied from 2 to 3.

    On the basis of three independent milling and baking quality evaluations over two crop years (2006-2007), milling and baking quality of SW049029104 have been similar to that of McCormick. On average SW049029104 and McCormick had similar values for softness equivalent (57.9% vs. 57.8%), flour yield (72.3% vs. 72.7%), and cookie spread diameter (17.71 vs. 17.72 cm). While flour protein of SW049029104 (8.40%) is slightly lower than that of McCormick (8.86%), gluten strength (Lactic acid retention capacity) of SW049029104 flour (111%) is higher than that of McCormick (103%). Thus, flour from SW049029104 likely can be used in the production of baked goods, such as crackers, requiring moderate to high gluten strength as well as production of pastry products such as cookies and cakes.

    Grain of SW049029104 submitted for evaluation by Wheat Quality Council was produced in 2009 at the Foundation Seed Farm of the Virginia Crop Improvement Association located at Mount Holly, VA. Grain was produced using intensive management practices including split application of spring N, Prosaro fungicide and Warrior insecticide. The 2008-2009 production season had cooler and drier winter conditions than normal followed by warmer and wetter conditions during flowering which resulted in widespread and severe FHB epidemics. Wet weather delayed harvest in many areas resulting in further degradation of grain quality.

    Description by: Carl Griffey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

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    USG 3342

    USG 3342 (VAN 98W-342) was from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Its normalized test weight will be about 1.2 pounds. USG 3342 has large kernel weight of about 39 grams. The flour granularity was softer than most cultivars and produced good cookie spread. The gluten was very weak.

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    USG 3555

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    USG3555 is an early maturing, short awnletted soft white winter variety with fair test weight. It is resistant to biotype E Hessian fly and has a widely adapted production area. USG3555 can be planted later to avoid Hessian fly, and its maturity is similar to USG 3209. Field ratings are excellent standabililty, very good emergence and good winter hardiness. Planting rate is 1.5 mil./ac. USG3555 has very good resistance to stem and stripe rusts and to powdery mildew, and good resistance to Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus.

    On the basis of milling and baking quality data for four crop years (2003-2006), USG 3555 tends to have higher break flour yields and slightly softer texture than USG 3209. Flour yields of USG 3555 have been similar to those of USG 3209. On average USG 3555 has higher grain protein concentration and stronger gluten strength than USG 3209. Overall, USG 3555 has better pastry baking quality on the basis of lower values for sucrose retention capacity and larger cookie diameters than USG 3209, and also has good cake baking qualities.

    Description by: Stacy Burwick, UniSouth Genetics, Inc.

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    USG 3592

    This cultivar is from Unisouth Genetics and has very high test weight. It would be similar to AGS 2000, Coker 9474 and Traveler. The flour granulation was very fine and was an unusual characteristic for a high test weight cultivar. USG 3592 produced good cookie spread and was medium in gluten strength.

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    USG 3650

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    This soft red winter cultivar was released from Unisouth Genetics. It possesses very large 1000 kernel weight. The test weight may be about 1.3 pounds greater than the reference cultivars listed in the test weight tables. The one sample evaluated indicated that it has superior milling quality. USG 3650 appeared to be about medium to medium-strong in gluten characteristics.

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    USG 3665

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    USG 3665 is a medium to late maturing, medium height, awnless variety with great test weight. USG3665 is resistant to stripe and leaf rust, and adapted to all soil types. Field ratings are very good winter hardiness and standability, and good emergence. Planting rate is 1.4 Mil./Ac. USG3665 has moderate resistance to glume blotch, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, and SBMV, and some resistance to powdery mildew and Scab.

    Description by: Stacy Burwick, UniSouth Genetics, Inc.

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    VA 97W-469

    The cultivar will likely be sold for private branding and has test weight that will probably be 1.5 pounds greater than the numerous cultivars found in the normalized reference list. This cultivar has superior milling properties possessing an ESI of 7.7%. Very few cultivars have that type of milling quality. Flour granulation was very soft being similar to Coker 9184, Hopewell and Pioneer 25R47. Cookie spread was quite large. The gluten strength appeared to be medium-strong with lactic acid SRC of 110%.

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    VA05W-139

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat line VA05W-139 was derived from the cross Pioneer Brand ‘26R24’ (PI 614110 PVPO) / ‘McCormick’ (PI 632691). VA05W-139 was evaluated in seven environments over three years (2008 – 2010) in Virginia’s State Variety Trials, and was evaluated throughout most of the soft red winter (SRW) wheat region in the USDA-ARS Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nurseries in 2009 and 2010. VA05W-139 is widely adapted, has short plant height, very good straw strength, and high grain yield potential. VA05W-139 has expressed moderate to high levels of resistance to the most prevalent wheat diseases in the eastern U.S. with the exception of stem rust and Hessian fly. Most notably, VA05W-139 provides producers in the eastern U.S. with a cultivar having adult plant resistance to stripe rust. It is expected that 1200 Bu of Foundation seed will be produced in 2011, which will be available for distribution to seedsmen.

    VA05W-139 is a short height semi-dwarf (gene Rht2) that is full-season maturity, resistant to lodging, broadly adapted, and high yielding. In the southern SRW wheat region, average head emergence of VA05W-139 (118 – 120 d) has been 4 to 6 days later than ‘Coker 9553’. Mature plant height of VA05W-139 is 31 to 34 inches and on average is 0.6 inch taller than ‘USG 3555’ and 2 to 3 inches shorter than Coker 9553. On average, straw strength (0=erect to 9=completely lodged) of VA05W-139 (0.2 – 0.9) is better than that of USG 3555 (1.2 – 1.8). VA05W-139 was evaluated at 26 locations in the 2009-10 USDA-ARS Uniform Southern SRW Wheat Nursery (USSRWWN), and ranked seventh among 32 entries for grain yield (64.5 Bu/ac). VA05W-139 had a mean test weight (56.8 Lb/Bu) that was most similar to that of USG 3555. VA05W-139 ranked among the top ten entries for grain yield at 15 of the 26 locations. VA05W-139 also was evaluated at 25 locations in the 2008-09 USSRWWN, and ranked fourth among 40 entries for grain yield (68.7 Bu/ac). VA05W-139 ranked among the top ten entries at 12 of the 25 locations. In comparison to the four check cultivars, VA05W-139 produced an average test weight (55.1 Lb/Bu) that was most similar to that of USG 3555. On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 3 of 25 locations in the 2008-09 USSRWWN, winter hardiness of VA05W-139 (3.9) was similar to that of Coker 9553 (4.0), and better than ‘AGS 2000’ (5.2) and Pioneer ‘26R61’ (5.5).

    Grain samples of VA05W-139 produced in six crop environments (2008 – 2010) were evaluated for end use quality by the USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Lab. VA05W-139 has exhibited milling and baking qualities that are most similar to those of the strong gluten cultivar Coker 9553. Mean comparisons of milling and baking quality attributes of VA05W-139 versus Coker 9553 include: milling quality scores (60.6 vs. 63.1), baking quality score (37.7 vs. 53.9), softness equivalent score (58.9 vs. 68.0), flour yield (68.0% vs. 68.6%), and flour protein (8.64% vs. 8.92%). Gluten strength of VA05W-139 as predicted by lactic acid solvent retention capacity has been consistently higher (mean of 138.8%) than that of Coker 9553 (mean of 121.3%) and other cultivars. VA05W-139 had lower cookie spread diameters (17.8 – 18.1 cm) compared with Coker 9553 (18.3 – 18.7 cm), ‘Shirley’ (19.59 cm), and AGS 2000 (18.8 – 19.1 cm). While flour solely derived from VA05W-139 is not desirable for pastry production, it’s very strong gluten flour may be desirable for use in production of leaven products such as crackers and certain breads as well as in blends with flour derived from weak gluten cultivars to improve their functionality.

    Description by: Carl Griffey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute

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    VA258

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    The soft red winter wheat cultivar VA258 was derived from the three-way cross VA98W-130 // ’Coker 9835’ / ‘38158’ (PI 619052= SS520). Parentage of VA98W-130 is ‘Savannah’ / VA87-54-558 // VA88-54-328 / ‘GA-Gore’. Parentage of VA87-54-558 is ‘Massey’ / ‘Holley’ and parentage of VA88-54-328 is ‘Lovrin 29’ / ‘Tyler’ // ‘Redcoat’ *2 / ‘Gaines’. VA258 was evaluated in seven to eight environments over three years (2007-2009) in Virginia’s Official State Variety Trials, and was evaluated throughout most of the soft red winter wheat region in the USDA-ARS Uniform Southern and Uniform Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nurseries in 2008 and 2009, respectively. VA258 has expressed moderate resistance to powdery mildew, leaf rust, barley yellow dwarf virus, soilborne mosaic virus, wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, and glume blotch. VA258 expressed seedling resistance to Hessian fly biotypes C and O, but is susceptible to biotypes B, D, and L. Breeder seed comprised of bulked seed from 298 of 320 selected F9 headrows of VA258 that were similar in phenotype and visually homogenous was planted and advanced by Virginia Crop Improvement Association (VCIA). Foundation seed of VA258 produced on 14 acres in 2011 at the VCIA Foundation seed farm was provided to seedsmen. Marketing of the cultivar will be directed by Maryland Crop Improvement Association, Queenstown, MD and Featherstone Seed, Amelia, VA.

    The soft red winter wheat line VA258 is broadly adapted, high yielding, full-season maturity, and a standard height semi-dwarf (Rht2). Spikes and straw of VA258 are white to creamy in color at maturity, and the tapering spikes are awnletted. Head emergence of VA258 (123 d, Julian in Virginia) is 1 day later than ‘Branson’, 2 days later than ‘USG 3555’, and 2 days earlier than Roane. Mature plant height of VA258 is 37 to 38 inches and on average is 2 inches taller than Branson, 5 inches taller than USG 3555, and 1 inch shorter than ‘Magnolia’. Straw strength (0=erect to 9=completely lodged) of VA258 (2.5 – 3.0) is similar to or better than those of ‘AGS 2000’ (3.1), ‘Roane (3.2), and ‘MPV 57’ (3.0). In Virginia’s State Wheat Variety Trials, the three year average (2007-2009) grain yield of VA258 (88 Bu/ac) was similar to that of the highest yielding (89 Bu/ac) cultivar Shirley. Average test weight of VA258 (57.6 Lb/Bu) is most similar to those of Branson and USG 3555 and 0.6 Lb/Bu higher than those of Shirley and Pioneer variety ‘26R15’.

    VA258 was evaluated at 29 locations in the 2007-08 USDA-ARS Uniform Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery, and produced a mean grain yield (73.9 Bu/ac) that was just above the overall test yield average (72.6 Bu/ac) for all 42 entries and 29 locations. VA258 produced yields that were similar to or significantly higher than the test averages at 16 locations. Average test weight of VA258 (55.9 Lb/Bu) was most similar to that of USG 3555 (56.9 Lb/Bu). VA258 also was evaluated at 28 locations in the 2008-09 USDA-ARS Uniform Eastern Soft Red Winter Wheat Nursery, and ranked 13th among 42 entries for grain yield (75.2 Bu/ac) compared to rankings of 3rd for Branson (79.3 Bu/ac), 17th for ‘Bess’ (74.6 Bu/ac), 26th for Roane (73.0 Bu/ac), and 33rd for ‘INW 0411’ (69.1 Bu/ac). VA258 produced yields similar to or significantly higher than the test averages at 20 of the 28 test sites. Average test weight of VA258 (55.8 Lb/Bu) was similar to that of Branson. On the basis of winter kill ratings (0 = no injury to 9 = complete kill) reported at 4 of the 29 southern nursery locations and at 5 of the 28 eastern nursery test sites, winter hardiness of VA258 (3.0 and 3.1, respectively) is most similar to that of ‘Coker9553’ (3.4), better than that of AGS2000 (5.0), and less than that of Branson (2.2).

    On the basis of four independent quality evaluations over four crop years (2006-2009), VA258 has exhibited milling and baking qualities that are most similar to those of the strong gluten cultivars Featherstone 176, Jamestown, and Tribute. Mean comparisons of milling and baking quality attributes of VA258 versus Tribute over three years (2006-2008) include: milling quality score (61.9 vs. 66.5), baking quality score (36.1 vs. 41.0), softness equivalent score (59.9 vs. 58.5), flour yield (69.9% vs. 70.8%), flour protein (8.0% vs. 7.9%), gluten strength (lactic acid retention capacity 116.4 vs. 116.1), and cookie spread diameter (17.5 vs. 17.9 cm).

    Description by: Carl Griffey

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    Venture

    Soft Red Wheat

    Genesis Brand introduced this soft red cultivar that had smaller than average kernel size. Kernel size has not proven to be a factor in milling quality until the kernel weight falls to the mid 20 gram range. Venture had superior milling properties with an ESI of 7.6%. Break flour yield suggests very fine granulating flour with very good cookie spread. Lactic acid SRC was 114% indicative of medium-strong gluten.

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    Vigoro 9211

    This cultivar was introduced by Royster-Clark, Inc., and limited test weight information suggested Vigoro 9211 will be about 1.5 pounds higher than the reference cultivars. Kernel weight was 34 grams per thousand grains. Milling quality was good and flour granularity was about three percentage points below average. Cookie spread may be below average and gluten strength not able to be ascertained.

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    Vigoro 9212

    The cultivar has high test weight similar to Pioneer 2552, Renwood 3706, Richland and Saluda. It has large kernel weight of nearly 40 grams. V 9212 possesses Superior milling quality similar to Caledonia, Daisy and FL 302. The cookie spread was good and has weak gluten strength.

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    Vigoro 9222

    V 9222 has good test weight with average-size kernels. The flour granulation seemed to be very soft and cookie spread was typical for soft wheat. The gluten strength was strong as measured by the lactic value of 124%.

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    Vigoro 9412

    This cultivar likely will have a normalized test weight that will be about 2 pounds higher than the zero-reference cultivars. The gluten appeared to be of medium strength.

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    Vigoro 9510

    Vigoro 9510 was released by Royster-Clark, Inc. Kernel weight will probably be above average and break-flour yield was about one percentage point softer than average. Cookie baking quality was slightly below average being similar to Gore, Mason and Tribute. Gluten strength may be medium-strong but there was uncertainty due to 'weathering'.

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    Vigoro 9512

    This cultivar was another Royster-Clark Inc. introduction and test weight analysis indicated the cultivar will likely be about 1.1 pounds greater than the reference cultivars. Vigoro 9512 had above average kernel-weight size. Break-flour yield was of average softness. Cookie spread may be small and gluten strength was medium.

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    W1062

    Soft White Winter Wheat

    W1062 is a soft white winter wheat exclusively marketed by Syngenta Cereals (AgriPro business unit) for grain production. W1062 is a medium to medium-tall height wheat with medium to medium-full season heading. W1062 is moderately resistant to the powdery mildew races prevalent in Michigan in 2007 and 2008 and is moderately resistant to the leaf rust races prevalent in Michigan, NW Ohio, and W. Kentucky in 2007 and 2008.

    W1062 has shown better tolerance to in-head sprouting and better falling number data in weathered samples than most soft white winter wheats currently grown in Michigan. W1062 has shown very good milling flour yields and very good cookie baking properties. Its Lactic Acid scores indicate some level of gluten strength.

    W1062 is best adapted for grain production in Michigan and NW Ohio.

    Description by: Barton Fogleman, AgriPro COKER Syngenta Seeds, Inc

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    W1566

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    W1566 is a soft red winter wheat bred by Syngenta Cereals (AgriPro business unit) for grain and wheat straw production. W1566 is a relatively tall semidwarf wheat and is of medium maturity with heading date similar to Cooper. W1566 has shown very good winter hardiness and vigorous spring growth.

    W1566 has shown resistance to current field races of powdery mildew (Mich. ’05, ’07). It is moderately susceptible to current field races of leaf rust. It has shown moderately susceptibility to the soil virus complex (WSBMV/WSSMV in Urbana, IL, ’08, ’09). From data gathered from southern Illinois and Indiana fields in 2009, it is likely that W1566 is resistant/mod. resistant to Wheat Spindle Streak Mosaic Virus (WSSMV), but susceptible to WSBMV. W1566’s winter hardiness is reduced somewhat where WSBMV is active. W1566 has shown good milling flour yields and acceptable cookie baking properties.

    W1566 appears to be best adapted for grain and wheat straw production in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

    Description by: Barton Fogleman, AgriPro COKER Syngenta Seeds, Inc

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    Warwick

    Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Warwick is a soft red winter from C & M Seeds, Canada, and may have a normalized test weight of 1.9 pounds. It appeared to be very soft as revealed by the Allis-Chalmers mill. Warwick had good cookie spread and may be on the strong side for gluten strength.

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    Watford

    Hard White Wheat

    This soft white wheat was from Hyland Seeds, Canada, and was small in kernel size at 30.6 grams. Preliminary testing suggested that the flour protein may be moderately elevated. The gluten strength was about medium.

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    Weaver

    Steyer Seeds will market Weaver which possesses many good quality traits. Its normalized test weight may be about 1.0 pound higher than the reference cultivars and has large kernel weight of about 39 grams. Weaver possesses superior milling properties similar to Caledonia, Pocahontas and FL 302 and has very soft flour granulation. The cookie spread was good and the gluten strength was weak to medium.

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    Wellman 111

    Wellman Seeds, Inc., of Ohio, introduced this cultivar that had normalized test weight that was 2.2 pounds higher than the reference cultivars that equal about 60.0 pounds normalized test weight. Thousand-kernel weight was 35 grams. Flour granularity was very coarse, similar to Kristy. Cookie spread will likely be smaller than typical for soft wheat. Gluten strength was about medium-strong having Allis-Chalmers lactic acid SRC of 104%.

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    Wellman 120

    Introduced by Wellman Seeds. Genetic test weight will probably be about 2.0 pounds above the reference cultivars. Kernel size was slightly below average. Wellman 120 had very soft flour granulation and cookie quality was good. Gluten strength was slightly above medium having lactic acid SRC of 100%.

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    Wellman 121

    Soft Red Wheat

    Wellman Seeds owns the rights to this soft red cultivar and the normalized test weight will likely be about 1.3 pounds greater than the 60-pound reference cultivars. Kernel weight was about average and flour granularity was average for soft wheats. Milling quality was good having mill score of 76 and unusually good middling-stock-reduction friability above 30%. Cookie spread will probably be average and gluten strength was about medium having lactic acid SRC of 93%.

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    Wellman 130

    Wellman 130 has very high normalized test weight of 3.9 pounds and practically unparalleled compared to nearly 700 soft cultivars. There are around 10 cultivars that would have higher genetic test weight. Cultivars similar in test weight to Wellman 130 are AGI 540 and Cayuga. Gluten strength was about medium.

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    Wellman 150

    Wellman 150 has a normalized test weight of .8 pounds. The cultivar appeared to be very soft in flour particle size and produced a large sugar snap cookie spread. The gluten strength was medium.

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    Whitby

    Soft White Wheat

    Hyland Seeds, Canada, released this soft white cultivar that has test weight that would parallel the reference cultivars. It has very large kernel weight in excess of 40 grams. Break flour yield was slightly below average and cookie spread was typical for soft wheat. The lactic acid SRC was 88% and would suggest average gluten strength.

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    Wiley

    Wiley was introduced by Steyer Seeds and had normalized test weight about 2.2 pounds higher than the reference cultivars. Allis-Chalmers break-flour was coarse and cookie spread will likely be on the smaller side. Gluten strength was slightly above medium having lactic acid SRC of 103%.

    Additional Description below by: Joe Steyer, Steyer Seed

    Wiley is a soft red, awnless winter wheat with medium height and medium to early maturity. Wiley has an excellent test weight. This is an early, high yielding variety with excellent winter hardiness and wonderful standability and good disease resistance. Wiley is a top end yield combined with exceptional bucket weight. Its early maturity makes it ideal for double cropping. This variety has the complete package, disease resistance, yield and test weight.

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    Willcross 795

    Limited test weight data suggested that this cultivar will be a reference cultivar having normalized test weight of 60.0 pounds. Willcross 795 had good milling quality and slightly above average flour softness. Cookie spread may be on the smaller side and gluten strength was weak-medium (Allis-Chalmers lactic acid SRC 84%).

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    Wilson

    Soft Red Wheat

    Steyer Seeds markets this soft red cultivar that has test weight about 1 pound higher than the reference cultivars. Wilson has extremely soft flour granulation capabilities and may be very useful for cake baking purposes. Cookie spread was very good and the lactic acid SRC of 111% would be indicative of medium-strong gluten strength.

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    Wisdom

    Soft Red Wheat

    Hyland Seeds, Canada, released this soft red wheat that had test weight similar to the reference cultivars. Wisdom has very good milling quality and displayed extremely high flour granulation properties. This cultivar could be valuable for contract growing because of its extreme softness and usefulness for cake baking. The cookie spread was very good and the lactic acid SRC of 108% would suggest medium-strong gluten strength similar to Tribute.

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Last Modified: 11/8/2013