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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

This list was compiled by the NWISRL PAM research team. It includes references to work in the literature as well as work conducted at NWISRL. The inclusion or omission of a particular publication or citation should not be construed as endorsement or disapproval.If you would like to see additional relevant citations added to this list, please use the "Comment" link at the bottom of the page, or e-mail them to Rick Lentz. Updated May 2007

For another PAM bibliography see the Polyacrylamide (PAM) Bibliographyfrom the Water Quality Information Center of the National Agricultural Library (NAL), U.S. Department of Agriculture.

To see all NWISRL publications about PAM, see http://eprints.nwisrl.ars.usda.gov/view/subjects/pam.html


  • Aase, J.K., D.L. Bjorneberg, and R.E. Sojka. 1998. Sprinkler irrigation runoff and erosion control with polyacrylamide - laboratory tests. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62:1681-1687 Get publication in PDF format (613 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Abdelmagid, H.M., and M.A. Tabatabai. 1982. Decomposition of acrylamide in soils. J. Environ. Qual. 11:701-704.
  • Agassi, M., and M. Ben-Hur. 1992. Stabilizing steep slopes with soil conditioners and plants. Soil Technology 5:249-256.
  • Agassi, M., J. Letey, W.J. Farmer, and P. Clark. 1995. Soil erosion contribution to pesticide transport by furrow irrigation. J. Env. Qual. 24:892-895.
  • Agassi, M., Shainberg, I., and Morin, J. 1981. Effect of electolyte concentration and soil sodicity on the infiltration rate and crust formation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45:848-851.
  • Ahn, J. S., Castle, L., Clarke, D. B., Lloyd, A. S., Philo, M. R., and Speck, D. R. 2002. Verification of findings of acrylamide in heated foods. Food Addit. Contam. 19:1116-1124.
  • Ajwa, Husein A. and Thomas J. Trout. 2006. Polyacrylamide and Water Quality Effects on Infiltration in Sandy Loam Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:643-650. Get publication in PDF format (159 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Akhter, J., Mahmood, K., Malik, K. A., Mardan, A., Ahmad, M., and Iqbal, M. M. 2004. Effects of hydrogel amendment on water storage of sandy loam and loam soils and seedling growth of barley, wheat and chickpea. Plant Soil Environ. 50:463-469.
  • Al-Darby, A.M. 1996. The hydraulic properties of a sandy soil treated with gel-forming soil conditioner. Soil Technology 9:15-28.
  • Al-Omran, A.M., and A.R. Al-Harbi. 1997. Improvement of sandy soils with soil conditioners. In: Wallace, A. and R.E. Terry (eds.), Handbook of soil conditioners, Substances that enhance the physical properties of soil. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 USA.
  • Allison, L.E. 1952. Effect of synthetic polyelectrolytes on the structure of saline and alkali soils. Soil Sci. 73:443-454.
  • Aly, S.M., and J. Letey. 1988. Polymer and water quality effects on flocculation of montmorillonite. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52:1453-1458.
  • Aly, S.M., and J. Letey. 1990. Physical properties of sodium-treated soil as affected by two polymers. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54(2):501-504.
  • Andrzejewski, D., Roach, J.A.G., Gay, M.L., and Musser, S.M. 2004. Analysis of coffee for the presence of acrylamide by LC-MS/MS. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52:1996-2002.
  • Anonymous. 1995. Interim conservation practice standard: Irrigation erosion control (polyacrylamide). WNTC I-201. USDA-NRCS West Nat'l Tech. Centr., Portland, OR.
  • Anonymous. 2001. Anionic Polyacrylamide (PAM) Erosion Control (Acre) - Code 450 USDA-NRCS, NHCP. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. Washington, DC.
  • Arai, T., Kuroda, S., & Watanabe, I. 1981. Biodegradation of acrylamide monomer by a rhodococcus strain. In: "Actinomycetes," (K.P. Schaal and G. Pulverer, eds.), pp.297-307. Stuttgart, Gustav, Fischer Verlag.
  • Armbrust, D.V. 1999. Effectiveness of polyacrylamide (PAM) for wind erosion control. J. Soil Water Conserv. 54:557-559.
  • Armbrust, D.V, and Dickerson, J.D. 1971. Temporary wind erosion control: cost and effectiveness of 34 commercial materials. J. Soil Water Conserv. 26:154-157.
  • Armbrust, D.V. and L. Lyles. 1975. Soil stabilizers to control wind erosion. In: Soil Conditioners, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication No.7 (B. A. Stewart, Ed.), pp.77-82. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison WI.
  • Asada, J., T. Shimizu, S. Tajima, F. Sakamoto and M. Fujiki. 1985. Accumulation of acrylamide into fish. In: Management of bottom sediments containing toxic substances: Proceedings of the 9th U.S./Japan Experts Meeting, pp.161-172.
  • Ashmawy, A.K., El-Hajji, D., Sotelo, N., and Muhammad, N. 2002. Hydraulic performance of untreated and polymer-treated bentonite in inorganic landfill leachates. Clays and Clay Minerals 50:546-552
  • Austin, M.E., and Bondari, K. 1992. Hydrogel as a field medium amendment for blueberry plants. Hortscience 27:973-974.
  • Azzam, Reda A.I. 1980. Agricultural polymers, polyacrylamide preparation, application and prospects in soil conditioning. Soil Science and Plant Analysis 11(8):767-834.
  • Baasiri, M; Ryan, J., Mucheik, M., and Harik, S.N. 1986. Oil application of a hydrophilic conditioner in relation to moisture, irrigation frequency and crop growth. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 17:573-589.
  • Bacalski, A., Lau, B.P.Y., Lewis, D., and Seaman, S.W. 2003. Acrylamide in foods: occurrence, sources, and modeling. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:802-808.
  • Bahr, G.L. and T.D. Steiber. 1996. Reduction of nutrient and pesticide losses through the application of polyacrylamide in surface irrigated crops. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.41-48. Get publication in PDF format Available in PDF format.
  • Bahr, Gary, Tim Steiber, and Kirk Campbell. 1996. Reduction of nutrient and pesticide losses through the application of polyacrylamide in surface-irrigated crops. In: Proceedings, Sixth Annual Non-point source water monitoring results workshop. Boise State University, Boise, ID, Jan. 9, 10, 11, 1996.
  • Barbanel, B.A., L.N. Kirinkhina and O.G. Mironov. 1992. Study of the effect of artificial polymers on marine organisms Ekologiia Moria EKMODH, 42:83-87. In Russian with an English summary.
  • Barnett, A.P, Diseker, E.G., and Richardson, E.C. 1967. Evaluation of mulching methods for erosion control on newly prepared and seeded highway backslopes. Agron. J. 59:83-85.
  • Barvenik, F.W. 1994. Polyacrylamide characteristics related to soil applications. Soil Sci. 158:235-243.
  • Barvenik, F.W., Sojka, R.E., R.D. Lentz, F.F. Andrawes, and L.S. Messner. 1996. Fate of acrylamide monomer following application of polyacrylamide to cropland. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.103-110. Get publication in PDF format (949 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bear, F.E. 1952. Synthetic soil conditioners. Soil Sci. 73:419-492.
  • Ben-Hur, M. 1994. Runoff, erosion, and polymer application in moving-sprinkler irrigation. Soil Sci. 158:283-290.
  • Ben-Hur, M. 2001. Soil conditioner effects on runoff and potato yield under sprinkler irrigation. Agon. J. 93:1156-1163.
  • Ben-Hur, M., and R. Keren. 1997. Polymer effects on water infiltration and soil aggregation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 61:565-570.
  • Ben-Hur, M., and J. Letey. 1989. Effect of polysaccharides, clay dispersion, and impact energy on water infiltration. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53:233-238.
  • Ben-Hur, M., and J. Letey and I. Shainberg. 1990. Polymer effects on erosion under laboratory rainfall simulator conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54:1092-1095.
  • Ben-Hur, M., P. Clark, and J. Letey. 1992. Exchangeable Na, polymer, and water quality effects on water infiltration and soil loss. Arid Soil Res. and Rehabil. 6:311-317.
  • Ben-Hur, M., J. Faris, M. Malik, and J. Letey. 1989. Polymers as soil conditioners under consecutive irrigations and rainfall. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54(4):1173-1177.
  • Ben-Hur, M., M. Malik, J. Letey, and U. Mingelgrin. 1992. Adsorption of polymers on clays as affected by clay charge and structure, polymer properties, and water quality. Soil Sci. 153:349-356.
  • Benik, S.R., B.N. Wilson, D.D. Biesboer, B. Hansen, and D. Stenlund. 2003. Evaluation of erosion control products using natural rainfall events. J. Soil Water Cons. 58(2):98-104.
  • Benik, S.R., Wilson, B.N., Biesboer, D.D., Hansen, B., and Stenlund, D. 2003. Performance of erosion control products on a highway embankment. Trans. ASAE 46:1113-1119.
  • Bernas, S.M., J.M. Oades and G.J. Churchman. 1995. Effects of latex and poly-DADMAC on erosion, hydrophobicity and water retension. Aust. J. Soil Res. 33:805-816.
  • Bicerano, J. 1994. Predicting key polymer properties to reduce erosion in irrigated soil. Soil Sci. 158:255-266.
  • Biesinger, K.E. and G.N. Stokes. 1986. Effects of synthetic polyelectrolytes on selected aquatic organisms. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 58(3):207-213.
  • Biesinger, K.E., Lemke, A.E., Smith, W.E., and Tyo, R.M. 1976. Comparative toxicity of polyelectrolytes to selected aquatic animals. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 48:183-187.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L. 1998. Temperature, concentration, and pumping effects on PAM viscosity. Trans. ASAE 41:1651-1655. Get publication in PDF format (404 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., and Aase, J.K. 2000. Multiple polyacrylamide applications for controlling sprinkler irrigation runoff and erosion. Applied Eng. Ag. 16:501-504. Get publication in PDF format (357 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., and Lentz, R.D. 2005. Sediment pond effectiveness for removing phosphorus from PAM-treated irrigation furrows. Applied Eng. Ag. 21:589-593. Get publication in PDF format (47 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., J.K. Aase, and R.E. Sojka. 1997. Preliminary results using polyacrylamide with sprinkler irrigation. In: Proceedings of the winter commodity schools - 1996, 28:17-18. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension. Get publication in PDF format (118 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., J.K. Aase, and R.E. Sojka. 1998. Runoff and erosion control with polyacrylamide applied through sprinkler irrigation. ASAE Meeting Paper No. 982103.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., J.K. Aase, and R.E. Sojka. 2000. Sprinkler Irrigation Runoff and Erosion Control with Polyacrylamide. Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Symposium: National Irrigation Symposium. ASAE publication 701P0004, pp.513-522. 14-16 November 2000. Phoenix, Arizona. Get publication PDF informat(404 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., Aase, J.K., and Westermann, D.T. 2000. Controlling sprinkler irrigation runoff, erosion, and phosphorus loss with straw and polyacrylamide. Trans. ASAE 43:1545-1551. Get publication PDF informat(110 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bjorneberg, D.L., F.L. Santos, N.S. Castanheira, O.C. Martins, J.L. Reis, J.K. Aase, and R.E. Sojka. 2003. Using polyacrylamide with sprinkler irrigation to improve infiltration. J. Soil Water Conservation 58(5):283-289. Get publication in PDF format (226 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Blodgett, A.M., D.J. Beattie, J.W. White, and G.C. Elliott. 1993. Hydrophilic polymers and wetting agents affect absorption and evaporative water loss. HortScience 28(6):633-635.
  • Boatright, J.L., Balint, D.E., Mackay, W.A., and Zajicek, J.M. 1997. Incorporation of a hydrophilic polymer into annual landscape beds. J. Environ. Hort. 15:37-40.
  • Bodman, G.B., Johnson, D.E., and Kruskal, W.H. 1958. Influence of VAMA and of depth rotary hoeing upon infiltration of irrigation water. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 22:463-468.
  • Bologna, L.S., F.F. Andrawes, F.W. Barvenik, R.D. Lentz, and R.E. Sojka. 1999. Analysis of residual acrylamide in field crops. Journal of Chromatographic Science 37:240-244. Get publication in PDF format (205 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Bouranis, D.L. 1998. Designing synthetic soil conditioners via postpolymerization reactions. In: Wallace, A. and R.E. Terry (eds.), Handbook of soil conditioners, substances that enhance the physical properties of soil. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 USA.
  • Bouranis, D.L., A.G. Theodoropoulos, and J.B. Drossopoulos. 1995. Designing synthetic polymers as soil conditioners. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 26(9&10):1455-1480.
  • Bres, W., and Weston, L.A. 1993. Influence of gel additives on nitrate, ammonium, and water retention and tomato growth in a soilless medium. HortScience 28:1005-1007.
  • Brown, L., Bancroft, K.C.C., and Rhead, M.M. 1980. Laboratory studies on the adsorption of acrylamide monomer by sludge, sediments, clays, peat, and synthetic resins. Water Res. 14:779-781.
  • Brown, L., M.M. Rhead, K.C.C. Bancroft and N. A..?en. 1980. Model studies of the degradation of acrylamide monomer. Water Res. 14:775-778.
  • Brown, L., Rhead, M.M., Hill, D., and Bancroft, K.C.C. 1982. Qualitative and quantitative studies on the in situ adsorption, degradation, and toxicity of acrylamide by the spiking of the waters of two sewage works and a river. Water Res. 16:579-591.
  • Brown, M. J., Robbins, C. W., and Freeborn, L. L. 1998. Combining cottage cheese whey and straw reduces erosion while increasing infiltration in furrow irrigation. J. Soil Water Conserv. 53:152-156.
  • Bryan, R.B. 1992. The influence of some soil conditioners on soil properties: Laboratory tests on Kenyan soil samples. Soil Technology 5:225-247.
  • Buchholz, F.L. 1992. Polyacrylamides and polyacrylic acids. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Vol. A21. B. Elvers, S. Hawkins & G. Schulz (eds.) VCH Weinheim, Germany, pp.143-146.
  • Bull, R.J., Robinson, M. and Stober, J.A. 1984. Carcinogenic effects of acrylamide in Sencar and A/J mice. Cancer Research 44:107-111.
  • Callaghan, T.V., Abdelnour, H., and Lindley, D.K. 1988. The environmental crisis in the Sudan: the effect of water-absorbing synthetic polymers on tree germination and early survival. J. Arid Environ. 14:301-317.
  • Callebaut, F., D. Gabriels, and M. DeBoodt. 1979. The effect of polymer structure on soil physico-chemical properties and soil water evaporation. J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol. 29:723-729.
  • Carey, G.A., McMohan, J.A., and Kuc, W.J. 1987. The effect of suspended solids and naturally occurring dissolved organics in reducing the acute toxicities of cationic polyelectrolytes to aquatic organisms. Environ. Tocicol. Chem. 6:649-662.
  • Caulfield, M.J., Xiaojuan, H., Qiao, G.G., Solomon, D.H. 2003. Degradation on polyacrylamides. Part I. Linear polyacrylamide. Polymer 44:1331-1337.
  • Caulfield, M.J., Xiaojuan, H., Qiao, G.G., Solomon, D.H. 2003. Degradation on polyacrylamides. Part II. Polyacrylamide gels. Polymer 44:3817-3826.
  • Cay, E., Sivapalan, S., Chan, K.Y. 2001. Effect of polyacrylamides on reducing the dispersive properties of sodic soils when flood irrigated. In: Proceedings of the Irrigation Association of Australia Conference, Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, 11-12 July 2001, pp.28-32.
  • Chamberlain, P., and R. Cole. 1996. Influence of structure and formulation on the efficacy of polyacrylamides as soil stabilizers. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.83-87. Get publication in PDF format Available in PDF format.
  • Chan, K.Y., Sivapalan, S. 1996. Amelioration of a degraded hardsetting soil using an anionic polymeric conditioner. Soil Technology 9:91-100.
  • Chemical and Engineering News. 1951. Synthetic polyelectrolyte improves soil structure, prevents erosion. Chem Eng. News 29:5530-5531.
  • Choudhary, M.I., A.A. Shalaby, and A.M. Al-Omran. 1995. Water holding capacity and evaporation of calcareous soils as affected by four synthetic polymers. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 26(13&14):2205-2215.
  • Cochrane, B.H.W., Reichert, J.M., Eltz, F.L.F., and Norton, D.L. 2005. Controlling soil erosion and runoff with polyacrylamide and phosphogypsum on subtropical soil. Trans. ASAE 48:149-154.
  • Conway, E.J., Petersen, R.J., Collingsworth, R.F., Graca, J.G., & Carter, J.W. 1979. Assessment of the need for and character of limitations on acrylamide and its compounds. Washington DC, US Environmental Protection Agency (Report prepared for the Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Contract No. 68-10-4308).
  • Cook, D.F., and S.D. Nelson. 1986. Effect of polyacrylamide on seedling emergence in crust-forming soils. Soil Sci. 141:328-333.
  • Croll, B.T., B.M. Arkell, and R.P.J. Hodge. 1974. Residues of acrylamide in water. Water Res. 8:989-993.
  • Cron, R.E., Jr. 1959. Preliminary Report: An investigation of Chemical additive for reduction of seepage losses in irrigation canals. Arizona State University Division of Engineering. Report prepared for the United States Bureau of Reclamation and Salt River Valley Users' Association. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.
  • Danneels, P. and W. Van Cotthem. 1994. The effect of a soil conditioning mixture on plant growth. Belg. J. Bot. 127(1):17-25.
  • Daughton, Christian G. 1988. Quantitation of acrylamide (and polyacrylamide): Critical review of methods for trace determination/formulation analysis and future-research recommendations. Final report no. CGD-02/88. The California Public Health Foundation, 2001 Addison Street, Suite 210, Berkeley, CA 94704-1103. Reproduced by U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.
  • Davis, L.N., P.R. Durkin, P.H. Howard and J. Saxena. 1976. Investigation of selected potential environmental contaminants: acrylamides. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Report No. EPA 560/2-76-008 August 1976, pp.147.
  • Dawson, L.J., T.L. Spofford, and K.L. Pfeiffer. 1996. The physical effects of polyacrylamide on natural resources. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.110-114. Get publication in PDF format Available in PDF format.
  • De Boodt, M.F. 1975. Use of soil conditiners around the world. In: Soil Conditioners. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication No. 7. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
  • De Boodt, M.F. 1990. Application of polymeric substances as physical soil conditioners. In: Soil colloids and their associations in aggregates, M.F. De Boodt, M. Hayes, and A. Herbillon (eds.), Plenum Press, NY pp.517-556.
  • De Boodt, M.F. 1992. Soil conditioning for better soil management. J. Korean Soil Sci. Soc. Fert. 25:311-324.
  • De Boodt, M.F. 1993. Soil conditioning, a modern procedure for restoring physical soil degradation. Pedologie 43(l):157-195.
  • Decker, C. 1989. Effect of UV radiation of polymers. In: "Handbook of Polymer Science and Technology" (N. Cheremisionoff, ed.), pp.541-608. Dekker. New York.
  • Deery, D., Sivapalan, S., Chan, K.Y. 2002. Effect of polyacrylamides and gypsum on turbidity of water. In: Proceedings of the ASSSI Future Soils Conference, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 2-6 December 2002, pp.52-53. http://asssi.asn.au/asssi/flash/content/news&events/documents/ASSSI2002FutureSoilsProceedings.pdf
  • Deng, Y., J.B. Dixon, G.N. White, R.H. Loeppert, and A.S.R. Juo. 2006. Bonding between polyacrylamide and smectite. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 281:82-91.
  • Deng, Y., J.B. Dixon, and G.N. White. 2006. Adsorption of polyacrylamide on smectite, illite, and kaolinite. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:297-304.
  • Deskin, R. 1996. Product stewardship considerations in the use of polyacrylamides in soil erosion applications. In: Sojka, R.E. and R.D. Lentz (eds.) Proceedings: Managing Irrigation-Induced Erosion and Infiltration with Polyacrylamide May 6, 7, and 8, 1996, College of Southern Idaho, Twin Falls, ID. University of Idaho Misc. Pub. 101-96, pp.31-33. Get publication in PDF format Available in PDF format.
  • Diffey, B.L. 1991. Solar ultraviolet radiation effects on biological systems. Physics in Medicine and Biology 36:299-328.
  • Dzhanpelsov, R.D., N.S. Popova, Z.G. Akkulova, L.A. Kricheskiy, T.M. Sokolova, A.Ye. Marchenko, and A.R. Ramazanova. 1984. Study of new poymeric soil conditioners based on the humic acid of coal. Soviet Soil Sci. 16:83-89.
  • Edwards, M., Bendjamine, M.M., and Tobiason, J.E. 1994. Effects of ozonation on coagulation of NOM using polymer alone and polymer/metal salt mixtures. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 1:105-116.
  • El-Hardy, O.A., and Abd El-Hardy, B.M. 1989. The interaction between polyacrylamide as a conditioner for sandy soils and some plant nutrients. I. Effect on the mechanical strength and stability of soil structure. Egypt. J. Soil Sci. 219:51-56.
  • El-Hardy, O.A., Tayel, M.Y., and Lofty, A.A. 1981. Supergel as a soil conditioner. II. Its effects on p.ant growth, enqyme activity, water use efficiency, and nutrient uptake. Acta Hortic. 119:257-265.
  • El-Morsy, E.A., M. Malik, and J. Letey. 1991. Interactions between water quality and polymer treatment on infiltration rate and clay migration. Soil Technology 4:221-231.
  • El-Morsy, E.A., A.M. Malik, and J. Letey. 1991. Polymer effects on the hydraulic conductivity of saline and sodic soil conditions. Soil Sci. 151:430-435.
  • Entry, J.A., and R.E. Sojka. 1999. Influence of polyacrylamide application to soil on movement of microorganisms in irrigation water. pp.93-99. In: Proceedings of the Irrigation Association' International Irrigation Show & Technical Conference. Orlando, FL, 7-9 November, 1999. Get publication in PDF format (712 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Entry, J.A., and R.E. Sojka. 2000. The efficacy of polyacrylamide and related compounds to remove microorganisms and nutrients from animal wastewater. J. Environ. Qual. 29:1905-1914. Get publication in PDF format (943 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Entry, J.A., and R.E. Sojka. 2001. Polyacrylamide compounds remove coliform bacteria from animal wastewater. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on preferential flow: Water Movement and Chemical Transport in the Environment. ASAE publication 701P0006, pp.277-280. 3-5 January, 2001. Honolulu, Hawaii.
  • Entry, J. A., and Sojka, R.E. 2003. The efficacy of polyacrylamide to reduce nutrient movement from an irrigated field. Trans. ASAE 46:75-83. Get publication in PDF format (1925 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Entry J.A., I. Phillips, and R.E. Sojka. 2000. Polyacrylamide and related compounds remove coliform bacteria from animal wastewater in surface flow. In: Proceedings, Wetland Conference. Orlando, FL.
  • Entry, J.A., Phillips, I., Stratton, H., and Sojka, R.E. 2003. Polyacrylamide, polyacrylamide + Al(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide + CaO remove microorganisms and nutrients from animal wastewater. Environ. Pollut. 121:453-462. Get publication in PDF format (1829 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Entry, J.A., Sojka, R.E., Watwood, M., and Ross, C. 2002. Polyacrylamide preparations for protection of water quality threatened by agricultural runoff contaminants. Environ. Pollut. 120:191-200. Get publication in PDF format (2154 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Entry J.A., C.A. Strausbaugh and R.E. Sojka. 2000. Wood chip-polyacrylamide cores as a carrier for biocontrol bacteria suppresses Verticillium wilt on potato. Biocontrol Science and Technology 10:677-686. Get publication in PDF format (668 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Entry, J.A., Strausbaugh, C.A., Sojka, R.E. 2005. Compost amendments decrease Verticilliuam dahliae infection in potato. Compost Science & Utilization 13:43-49. Get publication in PDF format (4746 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Falatah, A.M., and Al-Omran, A.M. 1995. Impact of a soil conditioner on some selected chemical properties of a calcareous soil. Arid Soil Res. Rehab. 9:91-96.
  • Falatah, A.M., Al-Omran, A.M., Shalaby, A.A., and Mursi, M.M. 1999. Infiltration in a calcareous sandy soil as affected by water-soluble polymers. Arid Soil Res. Rehab. 13:61-73.
  • Fanta, G.F. and W.M. Doane. 1989. Saponified Starch-g-poly (acrylonitrile-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid): Influence of reaction variables on absorbency and wicking. In: Glass, J.E. and G. Swift (eds.) Agricultural and synthetic polymers, biodegradability and utilization. April 9-14, ACS symposium series 433.
  • Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. 1969. Polymers for sewer flow control: The development and demonstration of the use of polymers to reduce or eliminate sewer overflows by flow energy reduction. Water Polution Control Research Series, Report WP-20-22, pp.180.
  • Ferguson, D.F. 1997. Conway Gulch PAM Demonstration. Report to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. October 29, 1997. Get publication in PDF format (473 KB)Available in PDF format.
  • Fitzpatrick, C.S.B., Fradin, E., and Gregory, J. 2004. Temperature effects on flocculation using different coagulants. Water Science and Technology 50:171-175.
  • Flanagan, D.C., K. Chaudhari, and L.D. Norton. 2002. Polyacrylamide soil amendment effects on runoff and sediment yield on steep slopes: Part1. Simulated rainfall conditions. Trans. ASAE 45(5):1327-1337.
  • Flanagan, D.C., K. Chaudhari, and L.D. Norton. 2002. Polyacrylamide soil amendment effects on runoff and sediment yield on steep slopes: Part2. Natural rainfall conditions. Trans. ASAE 45(5):1339-1351.
  • Flanagan, D.C., L.D. Norton and I. Shainberg. 1997. Effects of water chemistry and soil amendments on a silt loam soil - Part1: Infiltration and runoff. Trans. ASAE 40:1549-1554.
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