|Agaricicolous species of Hypomyces|
Rogerson, C.T., and Samuels, G.J. 1994. Mycologia 86: 839-866
Key Words: Agaricales, Cladobotryum, Hyphomycetes, Hypocreaceae, Hypomyces, Verticillium
This is the fourth in a series of publications of monographic studies of Hypomyces (Fr.) L.-R. Tulasne (Hypocreales). In earlier papers we have described the species that occur on discomycetes (Rogerson and Samuels, 1985), on boletes (Rogerson and Samuels, 1989), and on Aphyllophorales (Rogerson and Samuels, 1993). As in these papers, we continue to place Peckiella (Sacc.) Sacc. and Apiocrea H. Sydow in synonymy with Hypomyces.
Species of Hypomyces can be distributed along the lines of their substrata, with most found on boletes, agarics, or Aphyllophorales (including polypores and thelephores) and with little overlap among the broad substratum groups. Thirteen species are recognized as occurring primarily on members of the Agaricales, including H. lactifluorum, the type species of the genus. Species of Hypomyces that parasitize boletes (Rogerson and Samuels, 1989; Helfer, 1991) and agarics (Helfer, 1991; and herewith) tend to be specific to host family or genus, whereas most species found on aphyllophoraceous hosts are less restricted. The Russulaceae J. P. Lotsy is the host family of preference for the agaricicolous Hypomyces species, with teleomorphs of eight species found only on species of Lactarius or Russula. Hypomyces hyalinus is found only on Amanita species. Two species are found on brown-spored agarics, viz. H. succineus on Pholiota sp. and H. tremellicola on Crepidotus spp. Hypomyces porphyreus is found on the pink-spored Leptonia strigosissima. Hypomyces odoratus is the least specialized of the agaricicolous species. Its teleomorph was previously known only in cultures of paired European isolates of its anamorph, Cladobotryum mycophilum, that were isolated from a variety of fungi. We have found perithecia in Puerto Rico and the United States on a polyporaceous basidiomycete. Hypomyces armeniacus, better known in Europe as H. ochraceous (but see below) begins developing on basidiomata of Russula or Lactarius, completely destroys the host and grows away from it, then appears to be growing on the substratum of the actual host. Hypomyces lateritius and H. lithuanicus appear restricted to species of Lactarius. Hypomyces lithuanicus may be the most specialized of the parasites, occurring only on species of the Lactarius torminosus (Schaeff.: Fr.) S. F. Gray complex, while other species may be restricted to either Lactarius or Russula but not to any species complex. In large populations of Hypomyces lactifluorum where the host can be determined with some confidence, the host has proven to be Russula brevipes; but associated nonparasitized hosts often belong to the Lactarius piperatus complex. In our experience Hypomyces luteovirens occurs only on species of Russula.
Basidiomata of agaric species that have been transformed by their parasites, including H. hyalinus, H. lactifluorum, and H. macrosporus, are considered by some to be edible (Herrera and Guzmán, 1961; Lincoff, 1981), bearing in mind the possibility that the host itself may be poisonous. Hypomyces lactifluorum and H. macrosporus are available in Mexican markets, where they may be found mixed (Herrera and Guzmán, 1961).