Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Methyl Bromide
headline bar
1 - Background
2 - Chemical and Physical Properties
3 - Reactions with Stratospheric Ozone
4 - Solubility
5 - Henry's Law Constant
6 - Vapor Pressure
7 - Adsorption
8 - Diffusion Coefficient
9 - Air Sampling
10 - Field Experiments
11 - Transformation of MeBr in Water
12 - Transformation of MeBr in Soil
13 - Transport Model
14 - Simulating MeBr Volatilization
15 - Fumigation
16 - Post-Fumigation
17 - Further Reading
Further Reading
 
Abdalla N, Raski DJ, Lear B, Schmitt RV (1974) Distribution of methyl bromide in soils treated for nematode control in replant vineyards. Pestic Sci 5:259-269.

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) (1988) Threshold limit values and biological exposure indices for 1988-1989, Cincinnati, OH, p.26.

Albritton DL, Watson RT (1992) Methyl bromide interim scientific assessment (MontrealProtocol Assessment Supplement), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya.

Alexeef GV, Kilgore WW (1983) Methyl bromide. In: Gunther FA & Gunther JD, ed. Residue reviews. Residues of pesticides and other contaminants in the total environment, Vol 88, New York, Springer Verlag , pp 102-153.

Anderson JG, Brune WH, Lloyd SA, Toohey DW, Sander SP, Starr WL, Lowenstein M, Podolske JR (1989) Kinetics of O3 destruction by ClO and BrO within the Antarctic vortex-An analysis based on in situ ER-2 data. J Geophys Res 94:11480-11520.

Anderson SO, Lee-Bapty S (1992) Methyl bromide interim technology and economic assessment (Montreal Protocol Assessment Supplement), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya.

Angus JF, Gardner PA, Kirdegaard JA, and Desmarchelier JM (1994) Biofumigation:Isothiocyanates released from Brassica roots inhibit growth of the take-all fungus. Plant Soil 162:107-112.Br>

Anonymous (1980) Dutch press compaign to outlaw methyl bromide. Grower 93:3.

Anonymous (1994) Methyl bromide under fire. Environ Health Persp 102:732-733.

Arvieu JC (1983) Some physico-chemical aspects of methyl bromide behavior in soil. Acta Horticulturae 152:267-274.

Arvieu JC, Cuany A (1985) Effects of organic matter on the biological activity and degradation of methyl bromide in soil. EPPO Bull 15:87-96.

Baker JM, Koskinen WC, Dowdy RH (1996) Volatilization of EPTC - Simulation and Measurement. J Environ Qual 25:169-177.

Basile M, Lamberti F (1981) Bromide residues in edible organs of plants grown in soil treated with methyl bromide. Med Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent 46:337-341.

Bonazountas M, Wagner JM (1984) "SESOIL" - A seasonal soil compartment model. Arthur D. Little, Cambridge, MA

Borek V, Elberson LR, McCaffrey JP, Morra MJ (1997) Toxicity of rapeseed meal and methyl isothiocyanate to larvae of the black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol 90:109-112.

Briggs GG (1981) Theoretical and experimental relationships between soil adsorption, octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubilities, bioconcentration factors and the parachor. J Agric Food Chem 29:1050-1059.

Brown AL, Burau RG, Meyer RD, Raski DJ, Wilhelm S, Quick J (1979) Plant uptake of bromide following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. Calif Agric 33:11-13.

Brown BD, Rolston DE (1980) Transport and transformation of methyl bromide in soils. Soil Sci 130:68-75.

Brown G, Jenkinson DS (1971) Bromine in wheat grown in soil fumigated with methyl bromide. Soil Sci Plant Anal 2:45-54.

Brown RH, Purnell CJ (1979) Collection and analysis of trace organic vapour pollutants in ambient atmosphere: The performance of tenax-GC adsorbent tube. J Chromatogr 178:79-90.

Brutsaert W (1982) Evaporation into the atmosphere. D. Reidel Pub., Dordrecht, Holland. 299 pp.

Butler JH (1995) Methyl bromide under scrutiny. Nature 376: 469-470.

Butler JH (1996) Scientific uncertainties in the budget of atmospheric methyl bromide. Atm Environ 30(8): i-iii.

Butler JH (2000) Better budgets for methyl halides? Nature 403:260-261.

Carey WW, Klausutis NA, Barduhn AJ (1966) Solubility of four gas hydrate formers in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Desalination 1:342-358.

Carpenter, J., L. Gianessi, and L. Lynch. 2000. The economic impact of the scheduled U.S. phase out of methyl bromide. National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy (NCFAP), Washington, DC. (www.ncfap.org/pup/ methyl% 20bromide/mb.pdf)

Carsel RF, Imhoff JC, Hummel PR, Cheplick JM, Donigian AS (1998) PRZM-3:A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones; Users Manual for Release 3.0. U.S. EPA.

Carsel RF, Mulkey LA, Lorber MN, Baskin LB (1985) The pesticide root zone model (PRZM): A procedure for evaluating pesticide leaching threats to groundwater. Ecological Modeling. 30:49-69.

Castro CE, Belser NO (1981) Photohydrolysis of methyl bromide and chloropicrin. J Agric Food Chem 29:1005-1008.

Chakrabarti B, Bell CH (1993) The methyl bromide issue. Chem. & Ind. 24:992-995.

Chakrabarti B, Wontner-Smith T, Bell CH (1995) Reducing methyl bromide emissions from soil fumigation in greenhouses. Proceedings of the Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, Nov. 6-8, 1995, San Diego, CA, Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach, Fresno, CA pp 25-1–25-3.

Chen C, Green RE, Thomas DM, Knuteson, JA (1995) Modeling 1,3-D fumigant volatilization with vapor phase advection in the soil profile. Environ Sci Technol 29:1816-1821.

Chitwood DE, Deshusses MA (2001) Development of a methyl bromide collection system for fumigated farmland. Environ Sci Technol 35:636-642.

Cicerone RJ, Heidt LE, Pollock WH (1988) Measurements of atmospheric methyl bromide and bromoform. J Geophys Res 93: 3745-3749.

Clendening LD (1988) A field mass balance study of pesticide volatilization, leaching and persistence, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Soil & Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, 92521, 221 pp.

Colby J, Dalton H, Whittenbury R (1975) An improved assay for bacterial mono-oxygenase: Some properties of the enzyme from Methylomonas methanica. Biochem J 151:459-462.

Colby J, Stirling DI, Dalton H (1977) The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Biochem J 165: 395-402.

Coosemans J, Van Assche C (1976) Investigations of the bromide concentration in Belgian greenhouse lettuce after methyl bromide disinfestation. Med Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent 41:1361-1369.

CRC (1996) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Ed. Lide DR (ed) CRC Press, New York, NY.

Cuany A, Arvieu JC (1983) Distribution patterns and nematocidal activity of methyl bromide in various soil conditions and methods of application. Acta Hortilculturae 152:277-287.

Daponte TLF (1995) Barrier films: Hytibar. Acta Horticulturae 382:56-66.

de Heer H, Hamaker Ph, Tuinstra, LGMTh, van der Burg AMM (1983) Use of gastight plastic films during fumigation of greenhouse soils with methyl bromide I. Significance of permeation and leakage for the emission into the outside air. Acta Horticulturae 152:109-126.

de Heer H, Hamaker Ph, Tuinstra LGMTh, van der Burg AMM (1986) Leaching of methyl bromide and bromide ions into surface water after fumigation of glasshouse soils. In: J.F. de Jong and L.G. Solbe (eds) Effects of land use on fresh waters: agriculture, forestry, mineral exploitation, urbanization. Chichester, England.

de Mello WZ, Hines ME (1994) Application of static and dynamic enclosures for determining dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide exchange in Sphagnum peatlands: Implications for the magnitude and direction of flux. J Geophys Res 99:14601-14607.

Denmead OT, Raupach MR (1993) Methods for measuring atmospheric gas transport in agricultural and forest systems. In: Harper LA, Mosier AR, Duxbury JM, Rolston DE (eds) Agricultural ecosystem effects on trace gases and global climate change, ASA Spec. Publ. 55, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 19-43.

Denmead OT, Simpson JR, Freney JR (1977) A direct field measurement of ammonia emission after injection of anhydrous ammonia. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41:1001-1004.

Duafala T (1996) Do we need further controls of agricultural methyl bromide? Atm Environ 30(8): iii-iv.

Dumas T (1982) Trapping low levels of methyl bromide in air or as residues at ambient and lower temperatures for gas chromatography. J AOAC 65:913-915.

Dumas T, Bond EJ (1985) Analysis of methyl bromide at ultra low concentration levels. J Agric Food Chem 33:276-278.

Dungan R, Gan J, Yates SR (2002) Accelerated degradation of methyl isothiocyanate in soil. Water, Air, Soil Pollut (in press).

Eayre CG, Sims JJ, Ohr HD, Mackey B (2000) Evaluation of methyl iodide for control of peach replant disorder. Plant Disease 84:1177-1179.

Eller, PM (1984) In: NIOSH Mannual of Analytical Methods, 3rd ed., US Department of Health and Human Services, Pub No 84-100, pp 2520-1-4.

Enfield CG, Carsel RF, Cohen SZ, Phan T, Walters DM (1982) Approximating pollutant transport to ground water. Ground Water 20:711-722.

Fallico R, Ferrante M (1991) Exposure to inorganic bromides from greenhouse crops where methyl bromide was applied for soil fumigation. Zbl Hyg 171:555-562.

Ferguson W, Padula A (1994) Economic effects of banning methyl bromide for soil fumigation. USDA Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economic Report 677, USDA, Washington, DC.

Fleagle RG, Businger JA (1980) An introduction to atmospheric physics, 2nd Edition. International Geophysics Series, Vol 25. Academic Press, New York, 432 pp.

Flessa H, Dörsch P, Beese F. (1995) Seasonal variation of N2O and CH4 fluxes in differently managed arable soils in southern Germany. J Geophys Res 100:23115-23124.

Fowler D, Duyzer JH (1989) Micrometeorological techniques for the measurement of trace gas exchange. In: Exchange of trace gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere; Andreae MO, Schimel DS (eds) Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, pp 189-207.

Fransi A, Pons R, Sala A, Vallejo VR, Bertran C (1987) Wheat and soil bromide dynamics after fumigation with methyl bromide in a mediterranean climate. Plant Soil 98: 417-424.

Gamliel A, Grinstein A, Katan J (1997) Improved technologies to reduce emission of methyl bromide from fumigated soil. Phytoparasitica, 25:S21-S30.

Gan JY, Anderson MA, Yates MV, Spencer WF, Yates SR (1995a) Sampling and stability of methyl bromide on activated charcoal. J Agric Food Chem 43:1361-1367.

Gan, J, Becker JO, Ernst FF, Hutchinson C, Knuteson JA, Yates SR 2000a. Surface application of ammonium thiosulfate fertilizer to reduce volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene from soil. Pest Manag Sci 56:264-270.

Gan JY, Yates SR (1996) Degradation and phase-partition of methyl iodide in soil. J Agric Food Chem 44:4001-4008.

Gan JY, Yates SR (1998) Recapturing and decomposing methyl bromide in fumigation effluents, J Hazard Mat 57:249-258.

Gan J, Yates SR, Anderson MA, Spencer WF, Ernst FF (1994) Effect of soil properties on degradation and sorption of methyl bromide in soil. Chemosphere 29:2685-2700.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Becker JO, Wang D (1998d). Surface amendment of fertilizer ammonium thiosulfate to reduce methyl bromide emission from soil. Environ Sci Technol 32:2438-2441.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Crowley D, Becker OJ (1998c) Acceleration of 1,3-D degradation by organic amendments and potential application for emission reduction. J Environ Qual 27:408-414.

Gan, J, Yates SR, Ernst FF, Jury WA 2000b. Degradation and volatilization of the fumigant chloropicrin after soil treatment. J Environ Qual 29:1391-1397.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Ohr HD, Sims JJ (1997b) Volatilization and distribution of methyl iodide and methyl bromide after subsoil application. J Environ Qual 26:1107-1115.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Ohr HD, Sims JJ (1998a) Production of methyl bromide by terrestrial higher plants. Geophys Res Lett 25:3595-3598.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Papiernik SK, Crowley D (1998b) Application of organic amendments to reduce volatile pesticide emissions from soil. Environ Sci Technol 32:3094-3098.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Spencer WF, Yates MV (1995b) Optimization of analysis of methyl bromide on charcoal sampling tubes. J Agric Food Chem 43:960-966.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Spencer WF, Yates MV, Jury WA (1997a) Laboratory-scale measurements and simulations of the effect of application methods on soil methyl bromide emission. J Environ Qual 26:310-317.

Gan JY, Yates SR, Wang D, Spencer WF (1996) Effect of soil factors on volatilization of methyl bromide from soil. Environ Sci Technol 30:1629-1636.

Gardiner, JB, Morra MJ, Eberlein CV, Brown PD, and Borek V (1999) Allelochemicals released in soil following incorporation of rapeseed (Brassica napus) green manures. J Agric Food Chem 47:3837-3842.

Gentile IA, Ferraris L, Crespi S, Belligno A (1989) The degradation of methyl bromide in some natural fresh waters. Influence of temperature, pH and light. Pestic Sci 25:261-272.

Gentile IA, Ferraris L, Sanguinetti M, Tiprigan M, Fisichella G (1992) Methyl bromide in natural fresh waters: hydrolysis and volatilisation. Pestic Sci 34:297-301.

Gholson AR, Jayanty RKM, Storm JF (1990) Evaluation of aluminum canisters for the collection and storgae of air toxics. Anal Chem 62:1899-1902.

Goring CAI (1962) Theory and principles of soil fumigation. Adv Pest Control Res 5:47-84.

Grimsrud EP, Miller DA (1978) Oxygen doping of carrier gas in measurement of halogenated methanes by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Anal Chem 50:1141- 1145.

Hague NG, Sood S (1963) Soil sterilization with methyl bromide to control soil nematodes. Plant Pathol 12:88.

Hamaker Ph, de Heer H, van der Burg AMM (1983) Use of gastight plastic films during fumigation of glasshouse soils with methyl bromide II. Effects on the bromide-ion mass balance for a polder district. Acta Horticulturae 152:127-135.

Harrison RM, Yamulki S, Goulding KWT, Webster CP (1995) Effect of fertilizer on NO and N2O fluxes from agricultural fields. J Geophys Res 100:25923-25931.

Harsch DE, Rasmussen RA (1977) Identification of methyl bromide in urban air. Anal Lett 10:1041-1047.

Hass HV, Klein L (1976) Influence of methyl bromide soil fumigation on fungicidal efficacy and bromide residues. Phytoparasitica 4:123-129.

Helweg A, Rasmussen AN (1982) Influence of soil fumigation with methyl bromide on bromide content in soil and in lettuce grown in the soil. Tidsskr Planteavl 86:461-469.

Hemwall JB (1959) A mathematical theory of soil fumigation. Soil Sci 88:184-190.

Hemwall JB (1962) Theoretical consideration of soil fumigation. Phytopathol 52:1108-1118.

Herzel F, Schmidt G (1984) The persistence of the fumigant methyl bromide in soil and water. Wasser Boden 36:589-591.

Hines, ME, Crill, PM, Varner, RK, Talbot, RW, Shorter, JH, Kolb, CE, Harriss, RC. (1998) Rapid consumption of low concentrations of methyl bromide by soil bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1864-1870.

Hoffmann GM, Malkomes HP (1974) Bromide residues in vegetable crops after soil fumigation with methyl bromide. Agric Environ 1:321-328.

Hoffmann GM, Malkomes HP (1978) The fate of fumigants. In: Mulder D (ed) Soil Disinfestation pp 291-335.

Hollingsworth EB (1980) Volatility of trifluralin from field soil. Weed Sci 28:224-228.

Howard PH (1989) Handbook of environmental fate and exposure data for organic chemicals. Vol 1. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea MI.

Hutchinson CM, McGiffen ME, Ohr HD, Sims JJ, Becker JO (2000) Efficacy of methyl iodide and synergy with chloropicrin for control of fungi. Pest Manag Sci 56:413-418.

Hutchinson GL, Mosier AR (1981) Improved soil cover method for field measurement of nitrous oxide fluxes, Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:311-316.

Hyman MR, Wood PM (1984) Bromocarbon oxidations by Nitrosomonas europaea. In: Crawford RL, Hanson RS (ed) Microbial growth on C1 compounds. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp49-52.

Jayanty RKM (1989) Evaluation of sampling and analytical methods for monitoring toxic organics in air. Atmos Environ 23:777-782.

Jin Y, Jury WA (1995) Methyl bromide diffusion and emission through soil under various management techniques. J Environ Qual 24:1002-1009.

Jury WA (1985) Spatial variability of soil physical parameters in solute migration: A critical literature review. Research Report EA-4228, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 66 p.

Jury WA, Farmer WJ, Spencer WF (1984a) Behavior assessment model for trace organics in soil: II. Chemical classification and parameter sensitivity. J Environ Qual 13:567-572.

Jury WA, Gardner WR, Gardner WH (1991) Soil Physics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. pp 234-242.

Jury WA, Jin Y, Gan J, Gimmi T (1996) Strategies for reducing fumigant loss to the atmosphere. In: Seiber JN, Knuteson JA, Woodrow JE, Wolfe NL, Yates MV, Yates SR (eds) Fumigants: Environmental fate, exposure, and analysis. ACS Symposium Series 652, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC., pp 104-115.

Jury WA, Letey J, Collins T (1982) Analysis of chamber methods used for measuring nitrous oxide production in the field. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:250-256.

Jury WA, Spencer WF, Farmer WJ (1983) Behavior assessment model for trace organics in the soil. I. Model description. J Environ Qual 12:558-564.

Jury WA, Spencer WF, Farmer WJ (1984b) Behavior assessment model for trace organics in soil: III. Application of screening model. J Environ Qual 13:573-579.

Juzwik J, Stenlund DL, Allmaras RR, Copeland SM, McRoberts RE. (1997) Incorporation of tracers and dazomet by rotary tillers and a spading machine. Soil Tillage Res. 41:237-248.

Kallio H, Shibamoto T (1988) Direct capillary trapping and gas chromatographic analysis of bromomethane and other highly volatile air pollutants. J Chromatogr 454:392-397.

Karickhoff SW (1981) Semi-empirical estimation of sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on natural sediments and soils. Chemosphere 10:833-845.

Katan J (1992) Soil solarization research as a model for the development of new methods of disease control. Phytoparasitica 20:S133-S135

Kempton RJ, Maw GA (1972) Soil fumigation with methyl bromide: bromide accumulation by lettuce plants. Ann Appl Biol 72: 71-79.

Kempton RJ, Maw GA (1973) Soil fumigation with methyl bromide: the uptake and distribution of inorganic bromide in tomato plants. Ann Appl Biol 74:91-98.

Kempton RJ, Maw GA (1974) Soil fumigation with methyl bromide: the phytotoxicity of inorganic bromide to carnation plants. Ann Appl Biol 76:217-229.

Kerwin RA, Crill PM, Talbot RW, Hines ME, Shorter JH, Kolb CR, Harriss RC (1996) Determination of atmospheric methyl bromide by cryotrapping-gas chromatography and application to soil kinetic studies using a dynamic dilution system. Anal Chem 68:899-903.

Khalil MAK, Rasmussen RA, Gunawardena R (1993) Atmospheric methyl bromide: trends and global mass balance. J Geophys Res 98:2887-2896.

King DB, Butler JH, Montzka SA, Yvon-Lewis SA, Elkins JW (2000) Implication of methyl bromide supersaturations in the temperate North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 105:19763-19769.

Knavel DE, Watkins H, Herron JW (1965) The influence of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil composition on the diffusion of methyl bromide. Am Soc Horti Sci 87:573-578.

Kolbezen MJ, Abu-El-Haj FJ (1977) Permeability of plastic films to fumigants. Proceedings of the International Agricricultural Plastics Congress, April 11-16, San Diego, CA. American Society for Plasticulture, Harrisburg, PA pp 1-6.

Kolbezen MJ, Munnecke DE, Wilbur WD, Stolzy LH, Abu-El-Haj FJ, Szuszkiewicz TE (1974) Factors that affect deep penetration of field soils by methyl bromide. Hilgardia 42:465- 492.

Krost KJ, Pellizzari ED, Walburn SG, Hubbard SA (1982) Collection and analysis of hazardous organic emissions. Anal Chem 54:810-817.

Lavergne JC, Arvieu JC (1983) Evolution and accumulation of inorganic bromide residues in soil and plant after localised and repeated applications of methyl bromide. Acta Horticulturae 152:289-296.

Lear B, Towson AJ, Miyagawa ST (1983) The value of leaching for removing inorganic bromide residues from soil after application of methyl bromide. Acta Horticulturae 152:305-313.

Lefevre C, Ferrari P, Guenier JP, Muller J (1989) Sampling and analysis of airborne methyl bromide. Chromatographia 27:37-43.

Le Goupil P (1932) Les propriétés insecticides du bromure de methyl. Rev Path Vég Ent Agric France 19:169-172.

Leistra M, Groen AE, Crum SJH, van der Pas LJT (1991) Transformation rate of 1,3-dichloropropene and 3-chloroallyl alcohol in topsoil and subsoil material of flower-bulb fields. Pestic Sci 31:197-207.

Lembright HW (1990) Soil fumigation: Principles and application technology. Suppl J Nematol 22:632-644.

Leonard RA, Knisel WG, Still DA (1987) GLEAMS: Groundwater loading effects of agricultural management systems. Trans. of the ASAE 30:1403-1418.

Livingston GP, Hutchinson GL (1995) Enclosure-based measurement of trace gas exchange: applications and sources of error, Chapter 2, In: Matson PA, Harriss RC (ed) Methods in Ecology- Biogenic Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA pp 52-97.

Lobert JM, Yvon-Lewis SA, Butler JH, Montzka SA, Myers RC (1997) Undersaturation of CH3Br in the southern ocean. Geophys Res Lett 24:171-172.

Ma QL, Gan JY, Becker JO, Papiernik SK, Yates SR (2001) Evaluation of propargyl bromide for control of barnyardgrass and Fusarium oxysporum in three soils. Pest Manag. Sci. 57:781-786.

Mabey W, Mill T (1978) Critical review of hydrolysis of organic compounds in water under environmental conditions. J Phys Chem Ref Data 7:383-415.

MaCartney L, Price TV (1988) Bromide residues in glasshouse soils in Victoria following bromomethane fumigation. Soil Biol Biochem 20: 393-397.

Majewski MS (1997) Error evaluation of methyl bromide aerodynamic flux measurements. In: Seiber JN, Knuteson JA, Woodrow JE, Wolfe NL, Yates MV, Yates SR (eds) Fumigants: Environmental fate, exposure, and analysis. ACS Symposium Series 652, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC., pp 135-153.

Majewski MS, Glotfelty DE, Paw KT, Seiber JN (1990) A field comparison of several methods for measuring pesticide evaporation rates from soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24:1490-1497.

Majewski MS, Glotfelty DE, Seiber JN (1989) A comparison of the aerodynamic and the theoretical-profile-shape methods for measuring pesticide evaporation from soil. Atmos Environ 23:929-938.

Majewski MS, McChesney MM, Woodrow JE, Prueger JH, Seiber JN (1995) Aerodynamic measurements of methyl bromide volatilization from tarped and nontarped fields. J Environ Qual 24:742-751.

Malathrakis NE, Sarris GE (1983) Bromide residues in greenhouse cucumbers and the possibility of reducing them. Acta Horticulturae 152:297-304.

Manö S, Andreae MO (1994) Emission of methyl bromide from biomass burning. Science 263:1255-1256.

Massicotte HB, Tackaberry, LE, Ingham, ER, Thies, WG (1998) Ectomycorrhizae establishment on Douglas-fir seedlings following chloropicrin treatment to control laminated-root rot disease: Assessment 4 and 5 years after outplanting. Appl Soil Ecology 10:117-125.

Massmann J, Farrier DF (1992) Effects of atmospheric pressures on gas transport in the vadose zone. Water Resourc Res 28: 777-791.

Masui M, Nukaya A, Ishida A (1979) Bromine uptake of some vegetable crops following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. J Japan Soc Horti Sci 48:55-60.

Masui M, Nukaya A, Ocura T (1978) Bromine uptake of muskmelon and cucumber plants following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. J Japan Soc Hort Sci 47:343-350.

Matthias AD, Blackmer AM, Bremner JM (1980) A simple chamber technique for field measurement of emissions of nitrous oxide from soil, J Environ Qual 9:251-256.

Maw GA, Kempton RJ (1973) Methyl bromide as a soil fumigant. Soil Fertil 36:41-47.

McElroy MB, Salawitch RJ, Wofsy SC, Logan JA (1986) Reductions of Antarctic ozone due to synergistic interactions of chlorine and bromine. Nature 321:759-762.

McHenry M (1994) A discussion of five portable soil drenching devices, three biocide injection methods and ten biocidal agents under field conditions. Proceedings of Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions. San Diego, CA, November 6-8, Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach, Fresno, CA pp 30-1–30-2.

Melichar MW (1995) Soil injection of 1,3-dichloropropene, alone or combined with chloropicrin and/or preemergent herbicides, for nematode, soil-borne diseases and weed control. Proceedings of Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions. San Diego, CA, November 6-8, Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach, Fresno, CA pp 51-1–51-2.

The Merck Index (1996) Budavari, S (ed) Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ.

Meyers AJ (1980) Evaluation of bromomethane as a suitable analogue in methane oxidation studies. FEMS Microbiol Lett 9:297-300.

Miller LG, Connell TL, Guidetti JR, Oremland RS (1997) Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:4346-4354.

Munnecke DE, Kolbezen MJ, Wilbur WD (1977) Types and thickness of plastic films in relation to methyl bromide fumigation. Proceedings of the 7th International Agricultural Plastics Congress, San Diego, CA, April 11-16 American Society for Plasticulture, Harrisburg, PA pp.482-487.

Munnecke DE, Van Gundy SD (1979) Movement of fumigants in soil, dosage responses, and differential effects. Ann Rev Phytopathol 17:405-429.

Muramatsu Y, Yoshida S (1995) Volatilization of methyl iodide from the soil-plant system. Atmos Environ 29:21-25.

NAPIAP (The National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program) (1993) The Biologic and Economic Assessment of Methyl Bromide, USDA-NAPIAP, Washington, D.C.

Nazer IK, Hallak AB, Abu-Gharbieh WI, Saleh NS (1982) Bromine residues in the soil and fruits of certain crops after soil fumigation with methyl bromide. J Radioanal Chem 74:113- 116.

Nelson SD, Riegel C, Allen LH, Dickson DW, Gan JY, Locascio SJ, Mitchel DJ (2001) Volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene in Florida plasticulture and effects on fall squash production. J Am Soc Hort Sci 126:496-502.

Noling JW, Becker JO (1994) The challenge of research and extension to define and implement alternatives to methyl bromide. J Nematol 26:573-586.

Olson SM, Noling JW (1994) Fumigation trials for tomatoes and strawberries in northwest Florida. Proceedings of Second Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions. San Diego, CA, November 6-8, Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach, Fresno, CA pp 6-1–6-4.

Oremland RS, Miller LG, Culbertson, CW, Connell TL, Jahnke L (1994b) Degradation of methyl bromide by methanotrophic bacteria in cell suspensions and soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:3640-3646.

Oremland RS, Miller LG, Strohmaier FE (1994a) Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments. Environ Sci Technol 28: 514-520.

Ou LT, Joy PJ, Thomas JE, Hornsby AG (1997) Stimulation of microbial degradation of methyl bromide in soil during oxidation of an ammonia fertilizer by nitrifiers. Environ Sci Technol 31:717-722.

Papiernik SK, Gan JY, Yates SR (2000) Mechanism of degradation of methyl bromide and propargyl bromide in soil. J Environ Qual 29:1322-1328.

Papiernik SK, Yates SR (2002) Effect of environmental conditions on the permeability of high density polyethylene film to fumigant vapors. Environ Sci Technol (in press).

Papiernik SK, Yates SR, and Gan J (2001) An approach for estimating the permeability of agricultural films. Environ Sci Technol 35:1240-1246.

Parmele LH, Lemon ER, Taylor AW (1972) Micrometeorological measurement of pesticide vapor flux from bare soil and corn under field conditions. Water, Air, Soil Pollut 1:433-451.

Penkett SA, Jones BMR, Rycroft MJ, Simmons DA (1985) An interhemispheric comparison of the concentrations of bromine compounds in the stratosphere. Nature 318:550-553.

Porter IJ, Merriman PR, and Keane PJ (1991) Soil solarisation combined with low rates of soil fumigants controls clubroot of caulifowers, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae Woron. Aust J Exp Agric 31:843-851.

Prather MJ, Watson RT (1990) Stratospheric ozone depletion and future levels of atmospheric chlorine and bromine. Nature 344: 729-734.

Rao PSC, Hornsby AG, Jessup RE (1985) Indices for ranking the potential for pesticide contamination of groundwater. Soil Crop Sci Soc Fl Proc 44:1-8.

Rasche ME, Hyman MR, Arp DJ (1990) Biodegradation of halogenated hydrocarbon fumigants by nitrifying bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:2568-2571.

Redeker KR, Wang NY, Low JC, McMillan A, Cicerone RJ (2000) Emissions of methyl halides and methane from rice paddies. Science. 290:966-969.

Reible DD (1994) Loss of methyl bromide to the atmosphere during soil fumigation. J Hazard Mat 37:431-444.

Reicosky DC (1990) Canopy gas exchange in the field: closed chamber. Remote Sensing Rev 5:163-177.

Reid RC, Prausnitz JM, Poling BE (1987) The properties of gases & liquids, 4th Ed. McGraw-Hill Co., New York, NY, 741 pp.

Rhew RC, Miller BR, Weiss RF (2000) Natural methyl bromide and methyl chloride emissions from coastal salt marshes. Nature 403: 292-295.

Riegel C, Dickson DW, Peterson LG, Nance JL (2000) Rate response of 1,3-dichloropropene for nematode control in spring squash in deep sand Soils. J Nematology 32:524-530.

Rolston DE (1986) Gas flux. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods; Agronomy Monograph 9, American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI pp 1103-1119.

Rolston DE, Glauz RD (1982) Comparisons of simulated with measured transport and transformation of methyl bromide gas in soils. Pestic Sci 13:653-664.

Roorda AN, Eysinga JPNL, de Bes SS (1984) Bromine in glasshouse lettuce as affected by chemical soil disinfectants and steam sterilization. Acta Horticulturae 145:262-268.

Rosenberg NJ, Blad BL, Verma SB (1983) Microclimate, The biological environment. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 495 pp.

Roughan JA, Roughan PA (1984a) Pesticide residues in foodstuffs in England and wales. Part I: Inorganic bromide ion in lettuce grown in soil fumigated with bromomethane. Pestic Sci 15:431-438.

Roughan JA, Roughan PA (1984b) Pesticide residues in foodstuffs in England and Wales. Part II: Inorganic bromide ion in cucumber, tomato and self-balancing celery grown in soil fumigated with bromomethane, and the 'natural' bromide ion content in a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. Pestic Sci 15:630-636.

Saini HS, Attieh JM, Hanson AD (1995) Biosynthesis of halomethanes and methanethiol by higher plants via a novel methyltransferase reaction. Plant, Cell Environ 18:1027-1033.

Salawitch RJ, Wofsy SC, McElroy MB (1988) Chemistry of OclO in the Antarctic stratosphere: Implications for bromine. Planet Space Sci 36:213-224.

Sauvegrain R (1995) Methyl bromide and the ozone layer: a responsible answer from the industry. Acta Horticulturae 382:51-55.

Schauffler SM, Heidt LE, Pollock WH, Gilpin TM, Vedder JF, Solomon S, Lueb RA, Atlas EL (1993) Measurements of halogenated organic-compounds near the tropical tropopause. Geophys Res Lett 20:2567-2570.

Schwarzenbach RP, Gschwend PM, Imboden DR (1993) Environmental Organic Chemistry. Wiley, New York, 1992.

Scudamore KA (1988) Fumigant analysis. In: (G Zweig and J Sherma, eds) Analytical Methods for Pesticides and Plant Growth Regulators Vol. XVI pp 207-261.

Shaw DV, Larson KD (1999) A meta-analysis of strawberry yield response to preplant soil fumigation with combinations of methyl bromide-chloropicrin and four alternative systems. HortScience 34:839-845.

Shorter JH, Kolb CE, Crill PM, Kerwin RA, Talbot RW, Hines ME, Harriss RC (1995) Rapid degradation of atmospheric methyl bromide in soils. Nature 377:717-719.

Siebering H, Leistra M (1978) Computer simulation of fumigant behavior in soil. In: D Mulder (ed) Soil Disinfestation. Elsevier North-Holland. pp 135-161.

Šimunek, J, Sejna M, van Genuchten M Th (1996) The HYDRUS-2D software package for simulating water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media. Version 1.0, International Ground Water Modeling Center publication IGWMC-TPS-53, Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 167 p.

Šimunek, J, van Genuchten M Th (1994) The CHAIN_2D code for simulating two-dimensional movement of water flow, heat, and multiple solutes in variably-saturated porous media, Version 1.1. United States Salinity Laboratory Research Report #136. United States Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 205 p.

Singh HB, Kanakidou M (1993) An investigation of the atmopheric sources and sinks of methyl bromide. Geophys Res Lett 20:133-136.

Solomon S, Mills M, Heidt LE, Pollock WH, Tuck AF (1992) On the evaluation of ozone depletion potentials. J. Geophys Res 97: 824-842.

Staerk H, Suess A (1974) Bromine content of vegetables and its accumulation after soil fumigation with methyl bromide, using neutron activation analysis. In: Comparative studies of food and environmental contamination, Proceedings of a symposium. IAEA, Vienna.

Stapleton JJ (2000) Soil solarization in various agricultural production systems. Crop Protection 19:837-841.

Taylor RWD (1994) Methyl bromide - Is there any future for this noteworthy fumigant? J Stored Prod Res 30:253-360.

Thomas W (1996) Methyl bromide-pesticide and environmental threat. Atmos Environ 30(8):i-ii.

Thompson RH (1966) A review of the properties and usage of methyl bromide as a fumigant. J Stored Prod Res 1:253-376.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2001) Atmospheric impact of agricultural use of methyl bromide. Methyl Bromide Alternatives. 7:1-2.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1995) 1994 Report of the methyl bromide technical options committee. UNEP Ozone Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1993) Protection of stratospheric ozone. Fed Regist 58(51):15014-15049.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2000) Protection of stratospheric ozone: Incorporation of Clean Air Act amendments for restrictions in Class I, Group VI controlled substances. Fed Regist 65:70795-70804.

Valente RJ, Thornton FC, Williams EJ (1995) Field comparison of static and flow-through chamber techniques for measurement of soil NO emission. J Geophys Res 100:21147-21152.

Vanachter A, Feyaerts J, van Wambeke E, van Assche C (1981b) Bromide concentrations in water after methyl bromide soil disinfestation. II. Relation between leaching of methyl bromide fumigated greenhouse soils and bromide concentrations in the surrounding surface waters. Med Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent 46:351-358.

Vanachter A, van Pee G, van Wambeke E, van Assche C (1981a) Bromide concentration in water after methyl bromide soil disinfestation. I. Relation between soil type, efficiency of leaching and bromide concentration in the leaching water. Med Fac Landbouww Rijksuniv Gent 46:343-349.

van Assche C (1971) Behavior and perspectives of chemical soil fumigation. Proc 6th Brit Insect Fumg Conf. pp 706-714.

van den Berg F, Boesten J (1997) User’s manual for version 3.1 of PESTLA. Unpublished report, DLO-Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

van Wambeke E (1983) Efficiency increase of methyl bromide soil fumigation by admixture with methyl chloride or ameliorated tarps. Acta Horticulturae 152:137-145.

van Wambeke E, Vanachter A, van Assche C (1988) Measures for improving soil fumigation. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases. British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK pp 199-204.

Wagenet RJ, Hutson JL (1987) LEACHM: Leaching estimation and chemistry model. Continuum Vol. 2. Water Res. Institute, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

Walker GE, Morey BG (1999) Effect of brassica and weed manures on abundance of Tylenchulus semipenetrans and fungi in citrus orchard soil. Aust J. Exper Agric 39:65-72.

Wang Q, Gan J, Papiernik SK, Yates SR (2000) Transformation and detoxification of halogenated fumigants by ammonium thiosulfate. Environ Sci Technol 34:3717-3721.

Wang D, Yates SR (1998) Methyl bromide emission from fields partially covered with a high-density polyethylene and a virtually impermeable film. Environ Sci Technol 32:2515-2518.

Wang D, Yates SR, Ernst FF, Gan J, Gao F, Becker JO (1997c) Methyl bromide emission reduction with field management practices. Environ Sci Technol 31:3017-3022.

Wang D, Yates SR, Ernst FF, Gan J, Jury WA (1997a) Reducing methyl bromide emission with a high barrier plastic film and reduced dosage. Environ Sci Technol 31:3686-3691.

Wang D, Yates SR, Gan J (1997b) Temperature effect of fate and transport of methyl bromide in soil fumigation. J Environ Qual 26:1072-1079.

Watson RT, Albritton DL, Andersen SO, Lee-Bapty S (1992) Methyl Bromide: Its Atmospheric Science, Technology, and Economics. United Nations Environment Programme, Ozone Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya.

Wauchope RD, Buttler TM, Hornsby AG, Augustijn Beckers PWM, Burt JP (1992) The SCS/ARS/CES pesticide database for environmental decision-making. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 123:1-164.

Wegman RCC, Greve PA, de Heer H, Hamaker Ph (1981) Methyl bromide and bromide-ion in drainage water after leaching of glasshouse soils. Water, Air, Soil Pollut 16:3-11.

Wegman RCC, Hamaker Ph, De Heer H (1983) Bromide-ion balance of a polder district with large-scale use of methyl bromide for soil fumigation. Food Chem Toxic 21:361-367.

Wesely ML, Lenschow DH, Denmead OT (1989) Flux measurement techniques. In: Lenschow DH, Hicks BB (eds) Global tropospheric chemistry: chemical fluxes in the global atmosphere. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO pp 31-46.

White JG, Hunt J (1983) Bromide residues in transplanted brassicas following methyl bromide treatment of seedbed and field. Ann Appl Biol 103:383-388.

Williams J, Wang NY, Cicerone RJ (1999) Methyl bromide emissions from agricultural field fumigations in California. J Geophys Res 104:30087-30096.

Wilson JD, Catchpoole VR, Denmead OT, Thurtell GW (1983) Verification of a simple micrometeorological method for estimating the rate of gaseous mass transfer from the ground to the atmosphere. Agric Meteor 29:183-189.

Wilson JD, Thurtell GW, Kidd GE (1981a) Numerical simulation of particle trajectories in inhomogeneous turbulence, I: Systems with constant turbulent velocity scale. Boundary Layer Meteor 21:295-313.

Wilson JD, Thurtell GW, Kidd GE (1981b) Numerical simulation of particle trajectories in inhomogeneous turbulence, II: Systems with variable turbulent velocity scale. Boundary Layer Meteor 21:443-463.

Wilson JD, Thurtell GW, Kidd GE (1981c) Numerical simulation of particle trajectories in inhomogeneous turbulence, III: Comparison of predictions with experimental data for the atmospheric surface layer. Boundary Layer Meteor 21:443-463.

Wilson JD, Thurtell GW, Kidd GE, Beauchamp EG (1982) Estimation of the rate of gaseous mass transfer from a surface source plot to the atmosphere. Atmos Environ 16:1861-1867.

Wofsy SC, McElroy, MB, Yung, YL (1975) The chemistry of atmospheric bromine. Geophys Res Lett 2:215-218.

Woodrow JE, McChesney MM, Seiber JN (1988) Determination of methyl bromide in air samples by headspace gas chromatography. Anal Chem 60:509-512.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) (1999) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998. Executive Summary. WMO, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.al.noaa.gov/WWWHD/pubdocs/assessment98.html

Yagi K, Williams J, Wang NY, Cicerone RJ (1993) Agricultural soil fumigation as a source of atmospheric methyl bromide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:8420-8423.

Yagi K, Williams J, Wang NY, Cicerone RJ (1995) Atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br) from agricultural soil fumigations. Science 267:1979-1981.

Yang RSH, Witt KL, Alden CJ, Cockerham LG (1995) Toxicology of methyl bromide. 142:65- 85.

Yates SR, Ernst FF, Gan JY, Gao F, Yates MV (1996b) Methyl bromide emissions from a covered field II. Volatilization. J Environ Qual 25:192-202.

Yates SR, Gan JY (1998) Volatility, adsorption, and degradation of propargyl bromide as a soil fumigant. J Agric Food Chem 46:755-761.

Yates SR, Gan JY (1999) Methods for removing and decomposing methyl bromide from fumigation gases. Patent No. 5,904,909. Issued: May 18, 1999.

Yates SR, Gan JY, Ernst FF (1996c) Methyl bromide emissions from a covered field. III. Correcting Chamber Flux for Temperature. J Environ Qual 25:892-898.

Yates SR, Gan JY, Ernst FF, Mutziger A, Yates MV (1996a) Methyl bromide emissions from a covered field I. Experimental conditions and degradation in soil. J Environ Qual 25:184-192.

Yates SR, Gan JY, Wang D, Ernst FF (1997) Methyl bromide emissions from agricultural fields. Bare-soil, deep injection. Environ Sci Technol 31:1136-1143.

Yates SR, Wang D, Gan J, Ernst FF, Jury WA (1998) Minimizing methyl bromide emissions from soil fumigation. Geophys Res Lett 25:1633-1636.

Yates SR, Wang D, Papiernik SK, Gan J (2002) Predicting pesticide volatilization from soils, J Environmentrics (accepted 3/26/01).

Yücel S (1995) A study on soil solarization and combined with fumigant application to control Phytophthora crown blight (Phytophthora capsici Leonian) on peppers in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey. Crop Protection 14:653-655.

Yung YL, Pinto JP, Watson RT, Sander SP (1980) Atmospheric bromide and ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere. J Atmos Sci 37:339-353.

Yvon-Lewis SA, Butler JH (1997) The potential effect of oceanic biological degradation on the lifetime of atmospheric CH3Br. Geophys Res Lett 24:1227-1230.

Zhang W, McGriffin Jr. ME, Becker JO, Ohr HD, Sims JJ, and Campbell SD (1998) Effect of soil physical factors on methyl iodide and methyl bromide. Pestic Sci 53:71-79.

 
<< Previous    1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9     10     11     12     13     14     15     16     [17]    

Last Modified: 10/20/2005
Footer Content Back to Top of Page