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United States Department of Agriculture

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Research > Biological Control > Parasites & Predators

  Effects Of Shelf Architecture And Parasitoid Release Height On Biological Control Of Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Eggs By Trichogramma deion (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)  
shelf w/ boxes The Indianmeal moth is a serious pest of finished stored products of worldwide distribution. Moths can be especially problematic in warehouses and retail stores, where they attack finished commodities and result in consumer complaints. Biological control using egg parasitoids in the genus Trichogramma is one potential alternative pest management strategy. Stored product managers need to take shelving type into consideration if T. deion is to be used as an inundative biological control for Indianmeal moth.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Protection of Stored Corn From Insect Pests, Using a Two-Component Biological Control Method Consisting of a Hymenopteran Parasitoid, and Transgenic Avidin Corn Powder  
Theocolax elegans The combination treatment of avidin corn powder plus the release of parasitoid wasps was superior to either treatment alone when tested against mixed populations of the internal feeder, S. zeamais, and the external feeders, T. castaneum and C. ferrugineus. Normally, multiple beetle species that are both external and internal feeders are found in stored grain. While avidin corn powder is fairly effective as an insecticide against the external feeders, it is not very effective against the internal feeders. By using the combination treatment, stored grain managers would be assured of protection from both internal and external feeders.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Interaction of Mattesia oryzaephili with Cephalonomia parasitoids of its coleopteran hosts, Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Oryzaephilus surinamensis  
oocysts and sporozoites The rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, and the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, are among the most abundant cosmopolitan pests of stored grain. The beetles are attacked by the bethylid parasitoids, Cephalonomia waterstoni and Cephalonomia tarsalis, respectively, well as by the neogregarine Mattesia oryzaephili. This study was an effort to determine how these beneficial species would interact. Did the parasitoids become infected? Would infection render the wasps ineffective biological control agents, or would they act as reservoirs and vectors, while continuing to prey on and parasitize beetle larvae?
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Biological Control Of the Indianmeal Moth on Finished Stored Products Using Egg and Larval Parasitoids  
electron photomicrograph of Habrobracon hebetor The Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella IMM) is a serious pest of raw and finished stored products and attacks both packaged and bulk commodities as well as spillage. Biological control and insect resistant packaging are two alternative pest management strategies for IMM. In our study, a combination of packaging, T. deion, and H. hebetor provided the best overall IMM suppression leaving the fewest live IMM as a source for future infestation.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Response of the wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis to Beauveria bassiana as free spores or infection in its host, the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis.  
larva with egg and fungus Cephalonomia tarsalis (Bethylidae) is a predator and ectoparasitoid of larval sawtoothed grain beetles (STGB). The beetle larvae are also very susceptible to Beauveria bassiana, a registered mycoinsecticide with excellent prospects for use against grain storage and processing pests. This work addresses the compatibility of the two biological control agents.
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Augmentative release of parasitoid wasps in stored wheat reduces insect fragments in flour  
Theocolax elegans Field studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the parasitoid wasp, Theocolax elegans, for reducing insect fragments in flour by suppressing populations of Rhyzopertha dominica in six bins, each containing 27 tonnes of wheat.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Effects of grain temperature on efficacy of Theocolax elegans to suppress Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat  
Theocolax elegans Suppression of Rhyzopertha dominica growth by the wasp T. elegans was 10 times greater at 25°C than at 32°C (99% and 55% relative to the control). Cooling the grain shortly after harvest with ambient air should greatly increase the effectiveness of these naturally occuring beneficial insects.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster


Research > Biological Control > Pathogens

  Desiccation stress increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product pests  
graph A dominant and unfortunate belief about entomogenous fungi is that their efficacies are inexorably linked to elevated ambient humidity. There is abundant evidence that the interaction of entomogenous fungi with ambient humidity depends on strain, host, and environment. Furthermore, we have found that Beauveria bassiana is most efficacious for Rhyzopertha dominica with stressful dryness. The purpose of this study was to determine if desiccation stress improves the performance of B. bassiana against a range of stored-product pests, especially Tribolium castaneum, which is to serve as the model insects for determination of mechanism and applicability to other stresses.
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Interaction of Mattesia oryzaephili with Cephalonomia parasitoids of its coleopteran hosts, Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Oryzaephilus surinamensis  
oocysts and sporozoites The rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, and the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, are among the most abundant cosmopolitan pests of stored grain. The beetles are attacked by the bethylid parasitoids, Cephalonomia waterstoni and Cephalonomia tarsalis, respectively, well as by the neogregarine Mattesia oryzaephili. This study was an effort to determine how these beneficial species would interact. Did the parasitoids become infected? Would infection render the wasps ineffective biological control agents, or would they act as reservoirs and vectors, while continuing to prey on and parasitize beetle larvae?
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Tritrophic Interactions and Storage Pest Control: Interaction of the Fungus Beauveria bassiana with Resistant Oat Varieties for Control of Oryzaephilus surinamensis  
Beauveria bassiana-infected sawtoothed grain beetle The sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), is a common pest of stored oats. Use of resistant cultivars or entomopathogenic fungi each provide partial control of this pest. We tested the hypothesis that the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, would be more efficacious on oat cultivars on which the immature development period of the sawtoothed grain beetle was prolonged. We also conducted dose-response tests with the fungus to determine optimal application rates for control of O. surinamensis on cracked and whole oats.
James Throne     pencil icon Poster

  Temperature and Humidity Interactions of Beauveria bassiana and Diatomaceous Earth for Control of the Lesser Grain Borer, Rhyzopertha dominica: An Unexpected Increase in Fungal Efficacy with Low Moisture  
3D chart A prevailing belief about entomogenous fungi is that their efficacies are inexorably linked to elevated ambient humidity. However, there is abundant published evidence indicates that the interaction of entomogenous fungi with ambient humidity depends on strain, host, and environment. Desiccant dusts have been shown to synergize Beauveria bassiana's effect on Rhyzopertha dominica under our standard assay conditions. This study was conducted to: 1. determine the effects of B. bassiana and diatomaceous earth through a range of conditions 2. assess the fungus' impact on adult and larval beetles 3. determine the longevity of inoculum under various temperature and moisture conditions and on wheat as a substrate.
Jeff Lord (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Response of the wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis to Beauveria bassiana as free spores or infection in its host, the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis.  
larva with egg and fungus Cephalonomia tarsalis (Bethylidae) is a predator and ectoparasitoid of larval sawtoothed grain beetles (STGB). The beetle larvae are also very susceptible to Beauveria bassiana, a registered mycoinsecticide with excellent prospects for use against grain storage and processing pests. This work addresses the compatibility of the two biological control agents.
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Cuticular lipids of Liposcelis bostrycophila and their implications for tolerance of entomopathogenic fungi  
Liposcelis bostrycophila Liposcelis bostrycophila is psocopteran whose presence in dwellings and stored foods is drawing increasing concern in many areas of the world because of its enormous population growth potential. In an effort to find nontoxic agents for its control, we conducted maximum challenge assays of fungi of broad host range. The results demonstrate that it is remarkably tolerant of the best known entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes (Table 1). We suspected that cuticular lipids might play a role in this tolerance. We characterized cuticular lipid extracts with electron impact mass spectral analysis and measured the effect of selected polar components on adherence, germination and growth of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  A Mattesia pathogenic for stored-product insects  
Mattesia photomicrograph A neogregarine parasite of the genus Mattesia is a prevalent mortality factor for the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, in colonies at GMPRC. It is infectious for the sawtoothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis and two Lepidoptera pests of stored products, Plodia interpunctella and Ephestia kuhniella. It is more virulent for rusty grain beetles than for sawtoothed grain beetles.
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster


Research > Biology > Behavior

  An Agent-Based Model for Simulating Red Flour Beetle Movement and Population Dynamics  
red flour beetle simulation Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is a common insect pest infesting flour mills. Over the last 80 years, dozens of mathematical models have been developed to simulate its population dynamics. However, while these models predict general population trends, they are not able to simulate individual behavior and movement, and most don’t include a spatial dimension. We built an agent-based model to explicitly represent individual beetles, fragmented landscapes, and the interactions between beetles as well as the interactions between beetles and their environment. Our model can be easily adjusted to different flour landscapes and different scales. The population dynamics, age structure, spatial distribution and movement behaviors are investigated in this agent-based model.
Paul Flinn (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Tribolium castaneum behavior near pheromone traps  
movement paths The use of spatial information from pheromone monitoring programs for making pest management decisions in food facilities is complicated by environmental influences on trap capture and need to be taken into account when implementing and interpreting pheromone monitoring programs.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster

  Patch utilization by the red flour beetle ( Tribolium castaneum)  
red flour beetle in flour The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major pest of flour mills and other food processing and storage facilities. The landscape of food processing and storage structures is a patchwork of unfavorable habitats and favorable habitats of varying quality and persistence. Understanding patch use behavior will help improve the management of pest populations in food processing and storage facilities.
James Campbell     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster


Research > Biology > Biochemistry

  Which Phenoloxidase Catalyzes Insect Cuticle Tanning, Laccase or Tyrosinase?  
beetles with tanning interference Tanning or sclerotization is a vital process during insect development in which N-acylcatecholamines are oxidatively conjugated to cross-link proteins and stabilize the exoskeleton. The phenoloxidases laccase (Lac) and tyrosinase (Tyr) have been proposed to catalyze tanning, but evidence reported to date identifying the actual tanning enzyme has been inconclusive. To establish the involvement of either or both of these phenoloxidases in cuticle tanning, we performed RNA interference (RNAi) experiments using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. RNAi can be used to suppress specific messenger RNAs and generate loss-of-function phenotypes. We have knocked down phenoloxidase mRNAs and examined the phenotypes for effects on adult cuticle tanning. The results reported here demonstrate that laccase and not tyrosinase plays the major role in cuticle tanning.
Richard Beeman (retired)      pencil icon Poster

  Proteolytic Enzyme Activity of Kentucky and Kansas Bacillus thuringiensis Susceptible and Resistant Indianmeal Moths Reared on Transgenic Bt Corn  
Indianmeal moth and larvae Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transformed plants are effective for controlling many insect pests, but insect resistance threatens the long term effectiveness of these toxins. Proteinase-mediated mechanisms may be involved in resistance to Bt and are investigated in this experiment.
Brenda Oppert     pencil icon Poster

  Cuticular lipids of Liposcelis bostrycophila and their implications for tolerance of entomopathogenic fungi  
Liposcelis bostrycophila Liposcelis bostrycophila is psocopteran whose presence in dwellings and stored foods is drawing increasing concern in many areas of the world because of its enormous population growth potential. In an effort to find nontoxic agents for its control, we conducted maximum challenge assays of fungi of broad host range. The results demonstrate that it is remarkably tolerant of the best known entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes (Table 1). We suspected that cuticular lipids might play a role in this tolerance. We characterized cuticular lipid extracts with electron impact mass spectral analysis and measured the effect of selected polar components on adherence, germination and growth of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.
Jeff Lord (retired)     pencil icon Poster


Research > Biology > Genetics

  Which Phenoloxidase Catalyzes Insect Cuticle Tanning, Laccase or Tyrosinase?  
beetles with tanning interference Tanning or sclerotization is a vital process during insect development in which N-acylcatecholamines are oxidatively conjugated to cross-link proteins and stabilize the exoskeleton. The phenoloxidases laccase (Lac) and tyrosinase (Tyr) have been proposed to catalyze tanning, but evidence reported to date identifying the actual tanning enzyme has been inconclusive. To establish the involvement of either or both of these phenoloxidases in cuticle tanning, we performed RNA interference (RNAi) experiments using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. RNAi can be used to suppress specific messenger RNAs and generate loss-of-function phenotypes. We have knocked down phenoloxidase mRNAs and examined the phenotypes for effects on adult cuticle tanning. The results reported here demonstrate that laccase and not tyrosinase plays the major role in cuticle tanning.
Richard Beeman (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Positional cloning of the maternally-acting, selfish gene, medea, in Tribolium castaneum  
red flour beetles This poster documents the positional cloning of target genes in Tribolium by chromosome walking in a BAC library. Two genes, aureate and the unique, maternal selfish gene Medea, defined only by phenotypic effect, were cloned and mapped to the scabrous and highwire regions, respectively, using very high-resolution recombinational mapping. Confirmation will include molecular mapping of seven Medea revertant (knockout) lesions induced by radiation, mapping of one spontaneous and one radiation-induced mutant lesion in aureate, expression analysis of the candidate genes in mutant beetles, and molecular characterization of gene mutations.
Richard Beeman (retired)     pencil icon Poster


Research > Biology > Physiology

  Which Phenoloxidase Catalyzes Insect Cuticle Tanning, Laccase or Tyrosinase?  
beetles with tanning interference Tanning or sclerotization is a vital process during insect development in which N-acylcatecholamines are oxidatively conjugated to cross-link proteins and stabilize the exoskeleton. The phenoloxidases laccase (Lac) and tyrosinase (Tyr) have been proposed to catalyze tanning, but evidence reported to date identifying the actual tanning enzyme has been inconclusive. To establish the involvement of either or both of these phenoloxidases in cuticle tanning, we performed RNA interference (RNAi) experiments using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. RNAi can be used to suppress specific messenger RNAs and generate loss-of-function phenotypes. We have knocked down phenoloxidase mRNAs and examined the phenotypes for effects on adult cuticle tanning. The results reported here demonstrate that laccase and not tyrosinase plays the major role in cuticle tanning.
Richard Beeman (retired)     pencil icon Poster

  Physiological Age-Grading, Ovarian Physiology, and Egg Resorption in the Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  
rice weevil ovaries We describe changes in the rice weevil ovarian system as a function of weevil age. We also characterize oocyte resorption induced by starvation of reproductive females. Finally, we present a model for age-grading the female rice weevil based on the degree of ovarian development and follicular relic accumulation.
James Throne     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Chronological Age-Grading of Three Species of Stored-Product Beetles by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy  
NIR diode array The objectives of this study were to determine if NIRS could be used for determination of chronological age in these three long- lived species of beetles, to determine the role of cuticular lipids in the ability of NIRS to age-grade adult S. oryzae, and to determine whether water content in adult weevils varies with age and if NIR wavelengths that are absorbed by water have any effect on the ability to determine age.
James Throne     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Grain > Areawide

  Insect Populations in Grain Residues from Kansas Elevators  
residues chart Most U.S. wheat is stored in large commercial elevators. Elevator silos can quickly become infested with stored-grain insects. Sources of infestation may include old grain, trucks and railcars, and spilled grain in outside areas. Nine elevators in Kansas were visited repeatedly for 2 years, frequency depended on amount of grain stored. Grain residues are likely sources for dispersal and infestation.
Frank Arthur     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Areawide IPM for commercial wheat storage  
grain elevator Insect pest management in grain elevators can be done more effectively and at a lower cost when insects are managed throughout a network of elevators. Areawide IPM is particularly important for stored wheat because insects are moved through the marketing system along with the grain. If insects are not controlled at one location, they can be spread to many other locations, which increases the cost of pest management. A sampling-based program was developed for managing insect pests in upright-concrete grain elevators.
Paul Flinn (retired)     blue ball icon Web Page      document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Grain > Behavior

  Movement of Rhyzopertha dominica in response to temperature gradients in stored grain  
temperature gradient Compared to other stored grain beetles, such as the rusty grain beetle, the lesser grain borer appears to move more slowly through the grain into preferred temperature regions. It is possible that adult R. dominica may suffer higher winter mortality in grain bins compared to the rusty grain beetle because the lesser grain borer is not able to move quickly enough into the warmer regions of the grain mass as the periphery of the grain cools during the fall and winter months. This could affect the beetle's ability to overwinter in stored grain bins.
Paul Flinn (retired)     blue ball icon Web Page      document icon Publication     


Research > IPM > Stored Grain > Behavior

  Movement of rusty grain beetle in response to temperature gradients in stored wheat  
temperature gradient Beetle population growth rate is primarily affected by grain temperature. In the fall, the periphery of the grain mass cools more rapidly than the center. Beetles often reach high densities in the center of the grain mass, because warmer temperatures there allow the population to increase during the winter. However, temperature gradients in a grain bin are often small. To predict rusty grain beetle population growth in bins, we need to know if they move towards and remain in warmer regions of a grain mass.
Paul Flinn (retired)     blue ball icon Web Page      document icon Publication     


Research > IPM > Stored Grain > Expert Systems & Modeling

  Stored Grain Advisor expert systems  
Stored Grain Advisor logo Stored Grain Advisor and Stored Grain Advisor Pro are decision support systems for farm-stored wheat and commercial elevator storage, respectively. These programs provide advice for managing insect pests in stored grain. Both programs predict the likelihood of insect infestation, and recommend appropriate preventative and remedial action.
Paul Flinn (retired)     CD iconSoftware document icon Publication     


Research > IPM > Stored Grain > Insecticides

  Evaluation of Methoprene Combined with Diatomaceous Earth to Control the Lesser Grain Borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Stored Wheat  
graph The combination of methoprene and DE produced additive effects. Reduced rates of DE gave immediate mortality and reduced rates of methoprene prevented F1 adults. This method of application is a possible new control strategy on stored wheat.
Frank Arthur     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Insect pest management in stored bulk grains and seeds: reduced risk-insecticides and non-chemical controls  
insect damaged kernels Diatomaceous Earth, Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs), Seed Treatments
Frank Arthur     pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Grain > Resistance

  Proteolytic Enzyme Activity of Kentucky and Kansas Bacillus thuringiensis Susceptible and Resistant Indianmeal Moths Reared on Transgenic Bt Corn  
Indianmeal moth and larvae Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transformed plants are effective for controlling many insect pests, but insect resistance threatens the long term effectiveness of these toxins. Proteinase-mediated mechanisms may be involved in resistance to Bt and are investigated in this experiment.
Brenda Oppert     pencil icon Poster

  Tritrophic Interactions and Storage Pest Control: Interaction of the Fungus Beauveria bassiana with Resistant Oat Varieties for Control of Oryzaephilus surinamensis  
Beauveria bassiana-infected sawtoothed grain beetle The sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae), is a common pest of stored oats. Use of resistant cultivars or entomopathogenic fungi each provide partial control of this pest. We tested the hypothesis that the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, would be more efficacious on oat cultivars on which the immature development period of the sawtoothed grain beetle was prolonged. We also conducted dose-response tests with the fungus to determine optimal application rates for control of O. surinamensis on cracked and whole oats.
James Throne     pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Grain > Trapping & Sampling

  Beetle Immigration into Foundation Seed Warehouses  
warehouse Understanding and eliminating routes of insect immigration into grain storage and processing facilities will provide new opportunities for targeted pest management. Stored-product Coleoptera were captured on unbaited rodent glue boards positioned on the floor, along the sides, and above overhead doors in Foundation Seed Warehouses located in Kansas and Nebraska. Traps were examined and replaced weekly from May through October 2004. To examine the effects of exclusion in paired tests, exterior rubber door gaskets were installed on one side of a door in Kansas and both doors in Nebraska. Species captured included the lesser grain borer, foreign grain beetle, rusty grain beetle, hairy fungus beetle, rice weevil and red flour beetle. When rubber gaskets were installed at the Kansas location, insect captures were concentrated at or near ground level suggesting that pest management efforts, such as residual spray applications, should be focused in these areas.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster

  Flight Activity of the Lesser Grain Borer Near Certified Seed Facilities  
setting traps Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), lesser grain borer (LGB), is a serious pest of stored grain and grain processing facilities throughout temperate regions of the US. Foundation-certified seed stock facilities currently rely on application of chlorpyrifos-methyl directly to seed, applications of contact insecticides around the warehouse perimeter, and annual warehouse fumigation to manage this pest. The most common formulation of chlorpyrifos-methyl labeled for use on stored grain will no longer be available starting in 2005. To develop an IPM program for these facilities, LGB flight activity in and around a Kansas warehouse and the primary routes of insect immigration were studied. Results are broadly applicable to any grain storage or processing facility.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster

  Insect Populations in Grain Residues from Kansas Elevators  
residues chart Most U.S. wheat is stored in large commercial elevators. Elevator silos can quickly become infested with stored-grain insects. Sources of infestation may include old grain, trucks and railcars, and spilled grain in outside areas. Nine elevators in Kansas were visited repeatedly for 2 years, frequency depended on amount of grain stored. Grain residues are likely sources for dispersal and infestation.
Frank Arthur     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster

  Detection of Stored-Grain Insect Infestation in Wheat Transported in Railroad Hopper-Cars  
railcars The specific objectives of this study were to determine (1) if IDK counts are indicative of insect infestation levels; (2) the age structure of the insect population in the infested railcars; and (3) the spatial distribution of insects and IDK in the grain mass.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Product > Behavior

  Tribolium castaneum behavior near pheromone traps  
movement paths The use of spatial information from pheromone monitoring programs for making pest management decisions in food facilities is complicated by environmental influences on trap capture and need to be taken into account when implementing and interpreting pheromone monitoring programs.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Product > Expert Systems & Modeling

  An Agent-Based Model for Simulating Red Flour Beetle Movement and Population Dynamics  
red flour beetle simulation Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is a common insect pest infesting flour mills. Over the last 80 years, dozens of mathematical models have been developed to simulate its population dynamics. However, while these models predict general population trends, they are not able to simulate individual behavior and movement, and most don’t include a spatial dimension. We built an agent-based model to explicitly represent individual beetles, fragmented landscapes, and the interactions between beetles as well as the interactions between beetles and their environment. Our model can be easily adjusted to different flour landscapes and different scales. The population dynamics, age structure, spatial distribution and movement behaviors are investigated in this agent-based model.
Paul Flinn (retired)     pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Product > Insect Fragments

  Effect of Wheat Infestation by Different Stages of the Lesser Grain Borer on Final Counts of Insect Fragments in Milled Flour  
NIR instrument The number of insect fragments produced in flour was directly proportional to the internal level of infestation with larvae, pupae, or newly emerged adults. Wheat samples containing a single kernel infested with one adult contributed 24.4? and 13.7? as many fragments as wheat kernels infested with one larva or pupa, respectively. More than 92% of flour samples containing 30 or less fragments were correctly classified as having less than 60 fragments by the NIR-models generated from flour infested with larvae or pupae. 82% of flour samples were correctly classified as having 60 or less fragments by the combined NIR-model developed with the QTA instrument.
James Throne     pencil icon Poster

  Augmentative release of parasitoid wasps in stored wheat reduces insect fragments in flour  
Theocolax elegans Field studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the parasitoid wasp, Theocolax elegans, for reducing insect fragments in flour by suppressing populations of Rhyzopertha dominica in six bins, each containing 27 tonnes of wheat.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Product > Insect Resistant Packaging

  Biological Control Of the Indianmeal Moth on Finished Stored Products Using Egg and Larval Parasitoids  
electron photomicrograph of Habrobracon hebetor The Indianmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella IMM) is a serious pest of raw and finished stored products and attacks both packaged and bulk commodities as well as spillage. Biological control and insect resistant packaging are two alternative pest management strategies for IMM. In our study, a combination of packaging, T. deion, and H. hebetor provided the best overall IMM suppression leaving the fewest live IMM as a source for future infestation.
Paul Flinn (retired)     document icon Publication      pencil icon Poster


Research > IPM > Stored Product > Insecticides

  Efficacy of Aerosols for Managing the Red Flour Beetle  
petri dishes Pest management professionals commonly utilize aerosolized liquid applications, also known as fogging, for management of stored-product insects including the red flour beetle. These applications are part of a potential methyl bromide replacement technology because they may increase the time interval between structural fumigations or heat treatments. The objectives of this study were to examine influence of flour accumulation, exposure location , life stage, and insecticide on the efficacy of aerosol applications. Data show that aerosolized insecticide applications in dishes without food residues placed in the open produced the highest red flour beetle mortality. Conversely, mortality significantly decreased with food and exposure under pallets.
Frank Arthur     pencil icon Poster

  Efficacy of Methoprene Against Neonates of Lesser Grain Borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on Rough Rice  
LGB larva Lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is one of the most important insect pests in rough rice. Females lay eggs outside kernels and the larvae bore and feed inside the kernel. Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR) which is applied on rice as a protectant. Methoprene affects egg and larval stages of R. dominica on rough rice. The methoprene-treated rice decreased the number of larvae hatching from eggs. Most of the larvae that bore into kernels treated with methoprene will die before reaching the adult stage, while larvae inside the untreated kernels are able to develop to adult.
Frank Arthur     pencil icon Poster

  Toxicity of diatomaceous earth (protect-it) to red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): effects of temperature and relative humidity.  
graph Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a natural product composed of fossilized diatoms (aquatic phytoplankton) from freshwater or marine sedimentary deposits. They absorb waxy fats and oils (lipids) from the insect cuticle and may also physically cut and damage the cuticle. This inhibits insects ability to retain water, and they die from dessication. Factors such as the target insect species, environmental conditions, and exposure interval can affect the response of insects to DE. The objectives of this test were to determine: 1) effect of temperature and relative humidity on mortality of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles, 2) variation in mortality between the two species, and 3) if mortality would continue to occur after the beetles were removed from the treated environment.
Frank Arthur     document icon Publication     

  Insecticides to control stored-product insects in mills, processing plants, food warehouses, and urban storages  
Pointsource wick Red Flour Beetle (RFB) and Confused Flour Beetle (CFB) are major pests of stored food. Newer insecticides used to control these pests have reduced mammalian toxicity. Physical and biological factors can affect insecticidal efficacy. These factors include insecticide formulation, temperature, relative humidity (RH), the presence of food materials, and insect species. New research with Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) affects insect molting hormones and prevents or inhibits adult emergence.
Frank Arthur     pencil icon Poster

  The effects of temperature on residual efficacy of cyfluthrin wettable powder.  
graph The toxicity of most organophosphate insecticides generally increases as temperatures increase. In contrast, toxicity of pyrethroids often decreases as temperatures increase, although results can vary depending on chemical structure, the target species, the specific insecticide, and the temperature range. The objectives of this test were to determine: 1) the effect of temperature on knockdown and survival of red flour beetles exposed on concrete treated with 9.5 mg per ft2 20% [AI] cyfluthrin wettable powder (WP), and 2) effects associated with residue aging.
Frank Arthur     document icon Publication     

  Survival of red flour beetles after exposure to cyfluthrin: effects of a food source  
graph Food warehouses, processing plants, and mills often contain residual food and hidden areas that support insect infestations. Sanitation programs for these indoor storage structures include the use of residual insecticides as crack and crevice treatments or spot treatments. However, insects may encounter the insecticidal residues for comparatively brief intervals during normal foraging and feeding activity. The objectives of this test were to determine: 1) the exposure intervals required to kill red flour beetles exposed on concrete treated with cyfluthrin wettable powder (WP), and 2) effects of a food source on beetle survival.
Frank Arthur     document icon Publication     


Research > IPM > Stored Product > Trapping & Sampling

  Beetle Immigration into Foundation Seed Warehouses  
warehouse Understanding and eliminating routes of insect immigration into grain storage and processing facilities will provide new opportunities for targeted pest management. Stored-product Coleoptera were captured on unbaited rodent glue boards positioned on the floor, along the sides, and above overhead doors in Foundation Seed Warehouses located in Kansas and Nebraska. Traps were examined and replaced weekly from May through October 2004. To examine the effects of exclusion in paired tests, exterior rubber door gaskets were installed on one side of a door in Kansas and both doors in Nebraska. Species captured included the lesser grain borer, foreign grain beetle, rusty grain beetle, hairy fungus beetle, rice weevil and red flour beetle. When rubber gaskets were installed at the Kansas location, insect captures were concentrated at or near ground level suggesting that pest management efforts, such as residual spray applications, should be focused in these areas.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster

  Flight Activity of the Lesser Grain Borer Near Certified Seed Facilities  
setting traps Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), lesser grain borer (LGB), is a serious pest of stored grain and grain processing facilities throughout temperate regions of the US. Foundation-certified seed stock facilities currently rely on application of chlorpyrifos-methyl directly to seed, applications of contact insecticides around the warehouse perimeter, and annual warehouse fumigation to manage this pest. The most common formulation of chlorpyrifos-methyl labeled for use on stored grain will no longer be available starting in 2005. To develop an IPM program for these facilities, LGB flight activity in and around a Kansas warehouse and the primary routes of insect immigration were studied. Results are broadly applicable to any grain storage or processing facility.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster

  Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Stored-Product Insect Flight Activity in a Kansas Landscape  
spatial distribution map Immigration of stored-product insects into food processing and storage facilities can be an important source of infestation. Although large numbers of stored-product insects can be captured outside food facilities, the sources of these insects and seasonal patterns to their flight activity are not well understood. In this study, seasonal patterns of outside flight activity were evaluated in a variety of habitat types in Kansas using pheromone traps. Temporal and spatial patterns of trap capture were determined for different pest species and habitat types. This information can be used to develop hypotheses about important source populations and recommendations about periods of time when facilities are susceptible to pest immigration.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster

  Stored product insects in a flour mill: population dynamics, spatial distribution, dispersal behavior and implications for pest management  
insect pheremone traps Methyl bromide is still widely used in food processing and storage facilities for the suppression of stored-product insect pests, but its use is scheduled to be phased out as part of the Montreal Protocol. Development of alternative tactics has been hampered by limited information available about pest population dynamics and spatial distribution at food facilities, fumigation efficacy, mechanisms by which populations rebound, and even how best to monitor pest populations. It is likely that many stored-product insect populations are made up of sub-populations interconnected by dispersal, therefore an important factor in evaluating management programs is to determine over what spatial scale these sub-populations are interacting. Pheromone trapping holds a great deal of promise as a monitoring tool, but because it captures dispersing individuals the relationship between pheromone trap capture and source populations needs to be established.
James Campbell     pencil icon Poster

  Fumigation Impact on Stored Product Insects in a Grain Processing Facility  
sticky trap Stored product insect pests reduce the quality of stored grain and processed grain products around the world. Losses to processed grain products are difficult to quantify but are undoubtedly greater because these products are more valuable yet have a lower pest tolerance than raw commodities. Insect management is important not only to maintain consumer confidence, but also because federal laws regulate insect presence in processing facilities and insect fragments in processed goods. Fumigation is the primary tool used to manage these insect infestations.
Frank Arthur     pencil icon Poster

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Last Modified: 9/26/2013
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