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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Paul Armstrong
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Research Interests

 Paul Armstrong

Contact Information:

Attn:   Paul Armstrong
                       1515 College Ave
                       Manhattan, KS  66502

Phone:   785.776.2728
Fax:   785.537.5550



 Paul Armstrong - Agricultural Engineer


Paul is a scientist working in the development of sensors and instrumentation for non-destructive measurement of grain attributes and the monitoring of stored grain. Research includes development of rapid single-kernel near-infrared spectroscopic instrumentation to measure chemical composition and attributes of corn and soybeans (protein, lysine, tryptophan, oil, mold damage, etc), and development in situ moisture and quality monitoring systems for stored grain.

  • B.S., Agricultural Engineering, University of the Southern Queensland Australia (formerly Darling Downs Inst. of Advanced Ed.), 1980
  • M.S., Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 1982
  • Ph.D., Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 1989


  • 1980-1982, Research Assistant, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK
  • 1982-1983, Lecturer, Agricultural Engineering Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA
  • 1983-1984, Consultant, Luis Berger International-USAID project, Cairo, Egypt
  • 1985-1989, Research Assistant, Agricultural Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
  • 1989-1995, Consultant, TechMark Inc, Lansing, MI
  • 1989-1995, Research Specialist, Agricultural Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
  • 1995-2000, Assistant Researcher, Biosystems Engineering Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK
  • 2000-2002, Engineer/Proprietor, Bioworks, Inc, Stillwater, OK
  • 2002-present, Agricultural Engineer, Grain Marketing Production Research Center, USDA, Manhattan, KS

Recent Publications
Publication Search Options:

1.  Publications with the Reprint Icon icon have a permanent url at the NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY (NAL)
3.  Search "Publications at this Location"
4.  Contact if an article in the list below does not have a link.  A scanned copy will be emailed to you.

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Armstrong, P.R., Casada, M.E., and Lawrence, J.  2012.  Development of equilibrium moisture relationships for storage moisture monitoring of cornApplied Engineering in Agriculture.  28(5):677-683.



Agelet, L.E., Armstrong, P.R., Clariana, I.R., and Hurburgh, C.R.  2012.  Measurement of single soybean seed attributes by near-infrared technologies.  A comparative studyJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  60:8314-8322.



Armstrong, P.R. and Tallada, J.G. 2012.  Prediction of kernel density of corn using single-kernel near infrared spectroscopy.  Applied Engineering in.  28(4):569-574.


453 Reprint Icon

Armstrong, P.R., Tallada, J.G., Hurburgh, C., Hildebrand, D.F., Specht, J.E.  2011.  Development of single seed near-infrared spectroscopic predictions of corn and soybeans constituents using bulk reference values and mean spectra.  Transactions of the ASABE.  54(4):1529-1535.


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Tallada, J.G., Wicklow, D.T., Pearson, T.C., and Armstrong, P.R.  2011.  Detection of fungus-infected corn kernels using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and color imaging.  Transactions of the ASABE.  54(3):1151-1158.



Lee, K., Armstrong, P.R., Thomasson, A., Sui, R., Casada, M., and Herrman, T.J.  2010.  Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall systemJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  58:10945-10957.


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Kyung-Min Lee, Armstrong, P.R., Thomasson, J.A., Sui, R., Casada, M., and Herrman, T.J.  2011.  Application of binomial and multinomial probability statistics to the sampling design process of a global grain tracing and recall systemFood Control.  22:1085-1094.


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Tallada, J.G., Palacios-Rojas, N., and Armstrong, P.R.  2009.  Prediction of maize seed attributes using a rapid single kernel near infrared instrumentJournal of Cereal Science.  50(3):381-387. 


416 Reprint Icon

Gonzales, H., Armstrong, P., and Maghirang, R.G.  2009.  Simultaneous monitoring of stored grain with relative humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide sensors Applied Engineering in Agriculture.  25(4):595-604.


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Spielbauer, G., Armstrong, P., Baier, J.W., Allen, W.B., Richardson, K., Shen, B., and Settles, A. M.  2009.  High-throughput near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting quantitative and qualitative composition phenotypes of individual maize kernels.  Cereal Chemistry.  86(5):556-564.


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Casada, M.E. and Armstrong, P.R.  Wheat moisture measurement with a fringing field capacitive sensor.  Transactions of the ASABE.  52(5):1785-1791.


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Armstrong, P.R. and Weiting, M.  2008.  Design and testing of an instrument to measure equilibrium moisture content of grain.  Applied Engineering in Agriculture


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Armstrong, P.R., Lingenfelser, J.E., and McKinney, L.  2007.  The Effect of Moisture Content on Determining Corn Hardness from Grinding Time, Grinding Energy, and Near-Infrared SpectroscopyApplied Engineering in Agriculture.  23(6):793-799.


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Armstrong, P.R. 2006. Rapid Single-Kernel NIR Measurement of Grain and Oil-Seed AttributesApplied Engineering in Agriculture.  22(5): 767-772.

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Armstrong, P.R., Maghirang, E.B., Xie, F., and Dowell, F.E. 2006. Comparison of Dispersive and Fourier-Transform NIR Instruments for Measuring Grain and Flour AttributesApplied Engineering in Agriculture.  22(3): 453-457.


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Uddin, M.S., Armstrong, P.R., and Zhang, N. 2006. Accuracy of Grain Moisture Content Prediction Using Temperature and Relative Humidity SensorsApplied Engineering in Agriculture.  22(2): 267-273.

Last Modified: 2/4/2015