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WRRC Update July 28, 2008
WRRC UPDATE
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Update from the Western Regional Research Center

Pacific West Area / Agricultural Research Service / United States Department of Agriculture


Monday, July 28, 2008   

Rev. (Monday, July 28, 2008   10:13:20 AM)

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Table of Contents

THE CENTER      
TOP
Open innovation among discussion topics at WRRC research partnership meeting
photo of Jack KingJack King, California Farm Bureau Federation Photo courtesy Tina Williams Food and agricultural organizations and companies in the West participated in WRRC’s third annual Research Partnership meeting on March 5, 2008 in Albany, California. The meeting provides an opportunity for the Center’s customers and stakeholders to Learn about the Center’s current program, meet its world-class researchers, and discuss their organization’s research and business challenges and how the Center can help. Three stakeholders presented how their organizations value technology and how ARS could help fulfill their research requirements. The presenters were Malcolm DeLeo, The Clorox Company; Leon Frenken, Unilever/Physic Ventures; and Tom Sidebottom, U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Jack King, California Farm Bureau Federation, provided the lunchtime keynote address on trends and new political realities impacting agriculture. The full proceedings are available in PDF format.

Keywords: * THE CENTER *

Contact: James N. Seiber

Organizational Unit: WRRC

Record ID # 99      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
PARTNERING OPPORTUNITIES      
TOP
Licensing opportunity: for antibody used to detect contaminants in food
David Brandon and Larry StankerDrs. David Brandon (front) and Larry Stanker evaluating immunoassay results (ARS photo) Food testing requires ongoing method development to meet emerging challenges in safety, security, and regulation. Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit Biologist Larry Stanker and Chemist David Brandon are providing antibodies and assay development expertise to the Neogen Corporation (Lansing, MI) for evaluation of immunoassays to detect contaminants in food. Current Material Transfer Agreements provide reagents for detection of antibiotic residues, aflatoxins, and soybean trypsin inhibitor. These antibodies, and others developed by ARS, are available for commercial licensing in food safety testing.

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Keywords: * PARTNERING OPPORTUNITIES * pathogens * toxin * animal pathology *

Contact: Larry Stanker, David Brandon

Organizational Unit: FCR Foodborne Contaminants

Record ID # 91      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
Novel chemosensitization discoveries invite research partnerships
Focus on Fungus Conference Logo"Focus on Fungus" conference poster Plant Mycotoxin Research scientists have shown that natural compounds can act as chemosensitizers for drug-resistant strains of pathogenic fungi. The findings were presented at Focus on Fungal Infections 18, an international conference on treatment of human pathogenic fungal diseases, in San Antonio, TX, Mar 5-7, 2008. The poster, "Overcoming antifungal drug resistance using chemosensitization: Targeting stress response pathways of fungi with benzo analogs", won the Thomas J. Walsh Clinical Mycology Award for the most innovative and outstanding achievement in the field of research on infectious fungal diseases at the conference. This marks the first time that non-medical researchers were recognized.
PMR is seeking potential research collaborators and commercial partners (agricultural or medical) on use of chemosensitization to improve efficacy of antifungal agents. Please contact our technology transfer office for details.

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Keywords: * PARTNERING OPPORTUNITIES * pathogens * antifungal * drug resistance *

Contact: David Nicholson, Bruce Campbell, Kristin Kimball

Organizational Unit: PMR Plant Mycotoxin Research

Record ID # 90      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
BIOFUELS      
TOP
Bioenergy partnership to include expansion of gene library
JBEI logo Scientists in the Bioproduct Chemistry and Engineering Research Unit are partnering with the Department of Energy Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) to perform complementary research on biofuels. The DOE JBEI organization features four interdependent science and technology divisions: 1. Feedstocks, aimed at improving plants that serve as the raw materials for ethanol and the next generation of biofuels; 2. Deconstruction, aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms behind the breakdown of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars; 3. Fuels Synthesis, in which microbes that can efficiently convert sugar into biofuels will be engineered; and 4. Cross-cutting Technologies, which will be dedicated to the development and optimization of enabling technologies that support and integrate the DOE JBEI research. WRRC will focus on Deconstruction, with an emphasis on expanding the gene library through metagenomic approaches, in this new partnership.

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Keywords: * BIOFUELS * cellulose * energy * ethanol * chemical engineering *

Contact: William J. Orts

Organizational Unit: BCE Bioproduct Chemistry and Engineering

Record ID # 100      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
Enhanced switchgrass topic of SBIR grant
switchgrass photoSwitchgrass. ARS photo (image D854-1) Edenspace Systems Corporation was recently awarded a two-year, Phase II Small Business Innovation Research grant from the USDA. This grant supports continued development of enhanced switchgrass varieties with traits that reduce the cost of producing ethanol and other biofuels from plant leaves and stems. Edenspace has been working with WRRC since 2005 under a Cooperative Research & Development Agreement (CRADA). This work expands molecular breeding approaches to develop switchgrass varieties with improved biomass qualities for biofuel production, and explores genes, traits and mechanisms that are potentially useful for renewable energy production.

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Keywords: * BIOFUELS * switch grass * cellulose * energy * ethanol * agricultural engineering * enzymology *

Contact: John Vogel

Organizational Unit: GGD Genomics and Gene Discovery

Record ID # 94      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY/INVASIVE SPECIES      
TOP
Exotic insect moves closer to release to control problematic invasive weed
Yellow starthistle rosette weevilYellow starthistle rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne Photo courtesy Lincoln Smith Due largely to the work of ARS scientist Dr. Lincoln Smith, a critical milestone was achieved by the ARS Exotic & Invasive Weeds program. On May 22, 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service issued a letter of concurrence to USDA-APHIS regarding their determination that the release of the yellow starthistle rosette weevil, Ceratapion basicorne, is not likely to adversely affect any threatened or endangered species of thistles (Cirsium species) in the US. Such concurrence is usually the most difficult step in the long process of obtaining regulatory approval to release an exotic insect. Dr. Smith was instrumental in this determination, by petitioning the USDA-APHIS Technical Advisory Group (TAG) and submitting an official request for a release permit. Yellow starthistle is one of the most important invasive alien weeds in the western United States, infesting about 20 million acres of rangeland. Future release of the rosette weevil should help achieve permanent reduction of the weed over large areas without harming the environment.

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Keywords: * ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY/INVASIVE SPECIES * biological control * entomology *

Contact: Lincoln Smith

Organizational Unit: EIW Exotic and Invasive Weeds

Record ID # 87      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
WRRC joint battle against Light Brown Apple Moth (LBAM)
Light brown apple mothLight brown apple moth adults. Photo used with kind permission of HortNET, a product of The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Limited WRRC has been assisting the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) and USDA's Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in their efforts to monitor and combat the spread of the Light Brown Apple Moth (LBAM) in California. LBAM has been detected in coastal counties (Monterey, Santa Clara, others) and it is feared will spread to inland counties which are home to the multibillion dollar fruit and nut production areas that are most susceptible to damage by a wider LBAM infestation. APHIS and CDFA currently monitor the spread using pheromone-based traps, and use pheromone-based confusion techniques along with insecticide treatments to reduce populations. Aerial spraying in urban areas is controversial, so that alternatives are being sought. According to A.G. Kawamura, Secretary of the California Department of Food and Agriculture, "We are fast-tracking an approach known as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), in which large quantities of sterilized, infertile insects are released do that the wild population cannot reproduce." To support these efforts, APHIS and ARS researchers at WRRC are exploring the mass rearing of LBAM preparatory to sterile insect release as a population control method. Aspects of the rearing and sterilization research involve scientists in the WRRC Plant Mycotoxin Research Unit. Currently Ron Haff and Eric Jackson of WRRC are exploring sterilization methods that do not rely on a radioactive source for irradiation. Once the 'bugs' are worked out in the large scale rearing and sterilization technology, sterile insects will be released by APHIS and CDFA to compete with fertile insects and thus aid in eradicating this invader from California.

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Keywords: * ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY/INVASIVE SPECIES * fruits * nuts * insect control * pest management * entomology *

Contact: Ronald Haff, Eric Jackson

Organizational Unit: PMR Plant Mycotoxin Research

Record ID # 109      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
WRRC partners with French agriculture department and NASA Ames to develop computer models to manage invasive species
Dr. Olivier BonatoDr. Olivier Bonato Dr. Olivier Bonato from the French agricultural research institution, INRA, is currently visiting the USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center to join research efforts with scientists from the ARS Exotic and Invasive Weeds Research Unit and NASA Ames. This research team is cooperatively developing new biological computer models to help manage invasive species using the latest available technologies. Using parallel processing computers, microclimatic data is collected from the Naval Post Graduate School in Monterey, CA and applied in fine detail across large watersheds. When fully operational, these models will be run using the NASA Columbia Supercomputer to help farmers, ranchers and other land managers better control weed and insect pests over large areas.

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Keywords: * ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY/INVASIVE SPECIES * invasive alien weed * biological control * entomology *

Contact: Raymond Carruthers

Organizational Unit: EIW Exotic and Invasive Weeds

Record ID # 86      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
WRRC Scientist, Mark Weltz, recognized for substantially contributing to the award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2007
Dr. Mark WeltzDr. Mark Weltz Mark Weltz, of the WRRC Exotic and Invasive Weeds Research Unit in Reno, Nevada, was recently presented with an award-certificate acknowledging his contribution to the award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2007 to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC). The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to IPPC and Al Gore for “their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change.” Specifically, Dr. Weltz’ contribution related to his expertise on deserts and rangelands. He served as a technical reviewer, co-author and lead author for several IPPC reports on climate change. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, “…through the scientific reports it has issued over the past two decades, the IPCC has created an ever-broader informed consensus about the connection between human activities and global warming.”

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Keywords: * ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY/INVASIVE SPECIES * environment *

Contact: Mark Weltz

Organizational Unit: EIW Exotic and Invasive Weeds

Record ID # 85      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
FOOD AND CROP IMPROVEMENT FOR PRODUCTION/PROTECTION      
TOP
Genetically engineered wheat generates renewed interest
wheat photoARS photo (image K1441-5) ARS wheat geneticist Ann Blechl, of the Crop Improvement and Utilization Research Unit, attended an April 2008 meeting in Kansas City to discuss possible paths and obstacles to the release of genetically engineered (GE) wheat into commercial production. The April meeting brought together representatives of the wheat milling, baking, and export industries with representatives of wheat producers, seed and biotechnology companies to consider issues that so far have discouraged the release of GE wheat into commerce anywhere in the world. The closest to release had been glyphosate-resistant wheat developed by Monsanto Corporation, which withdrew its petitions to APHIS and FDA for commercialization in the spring of 2004 due to opposition from U.S. trading partners. In the intervening years, there has been increasing economic pressure on U.S. producers to switch from wheat to GE corn and soybeans, where possible, because of their higher yields. Both the National Association of Wheat Growers and U.S. Wheat Associates have issued statements in support of biotechnology as a way to increase wheat productivity (see http://www.wheatworld.org/html/info.cfm?ID=21). At the meeting, Dr. Blechl provided a description of improvements in wheat transformation technology that her lab is implementing to address some of the public’s concerns about GE wheat.

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Keywords: * FOOD AND CROP IMPROVEMENT FOR PRODUCTION/PROTECTION * wheat * grain * biotechnology * molecular biology *

Contact: Ann Blechl

Organizational Unit: CIU Crop Improvement Utilization

Record ID # 88      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY      
TOP
A new method to concentrate and detect norovirus from food samples
Electron microscopy image of norovirus particles.Electron microscopy image of norovirus particles. Noroviruses cause some of the world's foremost foodborne disease episodes, notably on cruise ships in recent years. Dr. Peng Tian in the Produce Safety and Microbiology unit at WRRC has developed a way to concentrate noroviruses from complex food samples. Dr. Tian discovered that gastric mucus in pigs contains blood antigens that serve as an effective binder for human noroviruses. The blood antigens help bind the norovirus to special beads that can be concentrated at least 100-fold when exposed to magnets. These improvements of concentrating norovirus will lead to improved detection of the virus, which sickens thousands of people each year. Dr. Tian has been invited to present his work at the XIV International Congress of Virology (10-15 August 2008, Istanbul, Turkey). The results will be published in the upcoming July issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

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Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * oyster * pathogens * norovirus * microbiology *

Contact: Peng Tian, Robert Mandrell

Organizational Unit: PSM Produce Safety and Microbiology

Record ID # 108      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
Combating microbial pathogens in foods with apple and tomato films
E. coli Inhibitory zone on bacterial plate with E. coli O157:H7 induced by a carvacrol containing apple film. Researchers in the Produce Safety and Microbiology and Processed Foods research units at WRRC are collaborating on the development of edible films made from tomato and apple byproducts which have added volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. When foodborne pathogens come into direct contact with these compounds or are exposed to their vapor in bags, the pathogens become inactivated. The antimicrobial films will have the added benefit of extending shelf life. Preliminary collaborative studies with the edible apple-based antimicrobial films resulted in multi-log decreases of Salmonella enterica bacteria on surfaces of commercial raw poultry meat and inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 in in vitro studies. These preliminary results suggest possible commercial uses for films for numerous food products requiring any type of packaging.



Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * tomatoes * apples * pathogens * food engineering * food science *

Contact: Mendel Friedman, Tara McHugh

Organizational Unit: PSM Produce Safety and Microbiology

Record ID # 104      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
E.coli in leaves of Romaine lettuce
E. coli on Romaine lettuceConfocal micrograph cells of E. coli O157:H7 (green fluorescent objects) on middle leaves of Romaine lettuce plants. Scale bar = 20 µm. Maria Brandl, research microbiologist in the Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit, and her collaborator at the University of California, Berkeley, recently published a study in the journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology about the effect of leaf age on the contamination of Romaine lettuce with the human pathogens Salmonella enterica and E. coli O157:H7. The pathogens multiplied faster and to higher numbers on the young inner leaves of lettuce plants than on the older middle leaves. Their study revealed that the amount of nitrogen available to the bacteria limited their growth on middle leaves. These results provide important information for risk assessment analysis of microbial contamination of lettuce and for developing sampling strategies used by the industry and public health agencies to evaluate the microbial safety of lettuce.


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Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * leafy vegetables * pathogens * microbiology *

Contact: Maria Brandl

Organizational Unit: PSM Produce Safety and Microbiology

Record ID # 107      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
High-sensitivity test for botulinum neurotoxin
microbead capturing neurotoxin illustrationA microbead (green) that has captured botulinum neurotoxin (red), which is cutting the target peptide (blue) to generate a fluorescent signal (yellow). Diagram not to scale. Diagram: JM Carter One method of detecting the botulinum neurotoxin relies on its ability to enzymatically cleave a very specific target peptide, to generate highly fluorescent fragments. Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit (FCR) Chemist Reuven Rasooly improved this assay, and made it practical for food analysis gaining extra sensitivity by using magnetic microbeads coated with the antibodies developed by FCR Research Biologist Larry Stanker. This step concentrates active toxin and overcomes interference by the food sample. Rasooly demonstrated dose-dependent detection of toxin in milk and juice, with sensitivity equal to the “gold standard” toxicology rodent bioassay, which requires live mice. This work is currently in press in the International Journal of Food Microbiology.


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Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * dairy * fruits * vegetables * pathogens * toxin * animal pathology *

Contact: Reuven Rasooly, Larry Stanker

Organizational Unit: FCR Foodborne Contaminants

Record ID # 93      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
New genome approach to "campy" detection in foods
Genome comparison of Campylobacter jejuni Genome comparison of Campylobacter jejuni clinical strains from South Africa Researchers in the Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit at WRRC and their collaborator in South Africa recently published a study in PLoS ONE entitled “Comparative genomic analysis of clinical strains of Campylobacter jejuni from South Africa.” The present study performed a comparative genomic analysis of the foodborne pathogen C. jejuni. The genetic polymorphism of C. jejuni strands were isolated from South African patients with various diseases, including: enteritis, Guillain-Barre and Miller Fisher syndrome. In order to examine these diseases more closely, researchers used two different sequence-based typing methods: multilocus sequence typing and DNA microarrays. This comparative genomic analysis has allowed researchers to improve methods for analyzing the epidemiology of disease C. jejuni and the sources behind its outbreaks. This study has provided fundamental information that could potentially lead to a safer food supply for consumers.

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Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * pathogens * microbiology * genomics *

Contact: Craig Parker, William Miller, Beatriz Quiñones

Organizational Unit: PSM Produce Safety and Microbiology

Record ID # 106      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
New high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to detect botulinum toxin
Lateral flow devicesLateral Flow Devices used to test for botulinum toxin work like a home pregnancy test. The top bar shows the test is working. If the second bar appears (right) the test is positive. Photo courtesy LH Stanker Botulinum neurotoxins, produced by common soil bacteria, are the most toxic materials known. Because of their potential use in a terrorist attack, Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit Research Biologist Larry Stanker developed new antibodies. He used the antibodies to create an ELISA test, which can detect toxins in milk with sensitivity equal to the “gold standard” rodent bioassay. This work was described in a recent publication in Journal of Immunological Methods and a US Patent Application (docket 12/138,415). Now, through a CRADA with Safeguard Biosystems (San Diego, CA), Stanker has used the new antibodies to develop a simple “dipstick” test that can detect the toxins in milk and other liquid foods with sub-nanogram sensitivity.

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Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * dairy * pathogens * toxin * animal pathology *

Contact: Larry Stanker

Organizational Unit: FCR Foodborne Contaminants

Record ID # 92      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
Spice-derived chemicals inactivate antibiotic resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains
Plant derived compounds from oregano leaves and cinnamon sticksPlant derived compounds from oregano leaves (left) and cinnamon sticks (right) inactivate antibiotic resistant Campylobacter jejuni foodborne pathogens. In a collaborative study with scientists at the Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology at the University of Arizona, Tucson, 63 Campylobacter jejuni isolates were screened for their resistance to the following widely used commercial antibiotics: ampicillin, cefaclor, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, and trimethroprim/ sulfamethoxazole. Based on this screen, two resistant strains and one nonresistant strain were evaluated for their susceptibility to inactivation by cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol, the main constituents of plant-derived cinnamon and oregano oils, respectively. The extent of observed inhibition of microbial growth was related to both concentration of antimicrobials and incubation time. The antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamaldehyde was greater than that of carvacrol. Our findings suggest that plant-derived compounds can inactivate at about the same rate both antibiotic-resistant and nonresistant strains of foodborne pathogenic Campylobacter bacteria. These studies provide candidates for incorporation into formulations that can protect food and consumers against antibiotic resistant C. jejuni.

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Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * pathogens * non-toxic antimicrobials * Campylobacter * antibiotic resistance * microbiology *

Contact: Mendel Friedman

Organizational Unit: PSM Produce Safety and Microbiology

Record ID # 105      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
USDA-MOST partnerships continues to develop
illumination ARS and The People's Republic of China's Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) continued its exchange activities over the past year. A delegation from MOST, China, visited WRRC in November, 2007, where several major initiatives to promote continued collaboration of the Agricultural Products and Processing Virtual Center (APPVC) were discussed. As part of this continued partnership, USDA-ARS Office of International Programs funded a $10,000 international collaborative project led by Drs. Zhongli Pan and Tara McHugh to develop new infrared dry-pasteurization technology for improved processing efficiency, product quality and safety of almonds. A visiting scientist from Northwest A&F University is part of this endeavor. In addition, Drs. Pan and McHugh have been hosting three other visiting scientists at WRRC from Northwestern A&F University and JiangSu University to do collaborative research. One such joint project has been funded by the California Rice Research Board to develop nutraceuticals from rice protein.

Keywords: * FOOD PROCESSING AND SAFETY * nuts * rice * food science *

Contact: Zhongli Pan, Tara McHugh

Organizational Unit: PFR Processed Foods Research

Record ID # 101      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
HEALTHY FOODS      
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Culinary arts expert to work with Processed Food Research Unit
photo of Klaus TenbergerKlaus Tenberger, USDA Hispanic Serving Institution Fellow USDA's Hispanic-Serving Institutions National Program (HSINP) announced that 22 faculty and administrators from Hispanic-Serving Institutions will work collaboratively this summer with USDA scientists and managers in Washington D.C. to learn more about research and management issues. The Fellows will collaborate with USDA on food security, leadership, biotechnology, and agribusiness. Klaus Tenbergen, a professor at California State University, Fresno in the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, was awarded a fellowship. He elected to work with Tara McHugh in the Processed Foods Research Unit, where he will be applying culinary arts to the Unit’s food processes and products. Klaus has a particular interest in culinary arts and business development of restaurants featuring healthy foods.

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Keywords: * HEALTHY FOODS * food science *

Contact: Tara McHugh

Organizational Unit: PFR Processed Foods Research

Record ID # 102      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
Fabulous Fortefiber gains fame
photo of Dr. Wallace YokoyamaDr. Wallace Yokoyama It is well-known than dietary fiber has important health benefits. Studies have found that diets high in fiber can help with weight loss, controlling diabetes, lowering cholesterol, and lowering risks of colon cancer. But despite its healthy reputation, consumers shy away from high fiber foods such as whole grain breads, vegetable skins, and bulk fiber supplements. Dow Wolff Celulosics (Dow) has developed a new food additive called Fortefiber, a water soluble material created from the microcrystalline cellulosic pulp of a tree. They hope that the new additive can be designed to target specific health issues and be added to everyday foods such as yogurts, desserts, breads, and snack foods.
Dow asked Dr. Wallace H. Yokoyama, Research Chemist in WRRC's Processed Foods Research Unit, for assistance. A few years back, Dr. Yokoyama discovered that soluble fiber helps keep blood sugar from spiking too high, a problem in diabetes. Dow collaborated with Dr. Yokoyama through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to conduct further research on Fortefiber. Their studies have found that Fortefiber can reduce high blood glucose levels. Although not yet on the market, Dow hopes to eventually blend Fortefiber into ready-to-eat foods or make it available in the form of supplement powder or pill.

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Keywords: * HEALTHY FOODS * cellulose * chemistry *

Contact: Wallace Yokoyama

Organizational Unit: PFR Processed Foods Research

Record ID # 110      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
Work of WRRC scientist, Andrew Breksa, featured on KPIX Channel 5 News
Eyewitness News 5 Logo Andrew Breksa of the Processed Foods Research Unit, was featured on KPIX Channel 5 News for his work with mandarin oranges. Dr. Breksa is currently finishing up a study at WRRC funded by the High Sierra Resource Conservation and Development Council (HSRC&D). Early results show mandarins have a significant amount of synephrine which is the main ingredient believed to fight allergy and cold symptoms. Plans are currently underway to continue this research.

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Keywords: * HEALTHY FOODS * citrus * chemistry *

Contact: Andrew Breksa

Organizational Unit: PFR Processed Foods Research

Record ID # 103      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP
SPECIALTY CROPS      
TOP
WRRC research on dieback disease of grapevines lauded
Eutypa dieback symptoms on grapevine Eutypa dieback symptoms on grapevine include stunted shoots and leaf development. See right side of foliage. The paper "Pathogenesis of Eutypa lata in Grapevine: Identification of Virulence Factors and Biochemical Characterization of Cordon Dieback" (P. E. Rolshausen, L. C. Greve, J. M. Labavitch, N. E. Mahoney, R. J. Molyneux, and W. D. Gubler; Phytopathology, vol. 98 (2), 222-229, 2008) was selected as the Editor's Pick for that issue of Phytopathology by Dr. Robert Gilbertson, Editor-in-Chief. Says Dr. Gilbertson: "New insight into the mechanism by which the vascular pathogen, Eutypa lata, infects and causes disease is revealed by examining the grapevine wood polymers degraded and enzymes and secondary metabolites produced by the fungus. The results revealed a possible mechanism of disease tolerance in grapevine, and raised important new questions about fungal colonization of woody hosts."

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Keywords: * SPECIALTY CROPS * grapes * pathogens * plant physiology *

Contact: Noreen Mahoney, Russell Molyneux

Organizational Unit: PMR Plant Mycotoxin Research

Record ID # 89      Mon, 28 Jul 2008 10:0:0 PDT         TOP


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