Insects and mites emerging from water may be collected by the same means as terrestrial insects, but specialized equipment is required. Aquatic insects are of great importance to water quality and are being intensely investigated in biodiversity studies. The following references pertain to aquatic collecting.
References: Apperson & Yows 1976; Carlson 1971; Coon & Pepper 1968; Coulson et al. 1970; Eastop 1955; Edmondson & Winberg 1971; Edwards et al. 1981; English 1987; Essig 1958; Gerking 1957; Hodgson 1940; Jonasson 1954; Kimerle & Anderson 1967; LaGasa & Smith 1978; Langford & Daffern 1975; Lawson & Merritt 1979; LeSage & Harrison 1979; Macan 1964; McCauley 1976; Mason & Sublette 1971; Masteller 1977; Merritt et al. 1978 (general); Morgan et al. 1963; Mundie 1956, 1964, 1966, 1971; Murray & Charles 1975; Pennak 1978 (general); Piecrynski 1961; Sladeckova 1962; Tarshis 1968a, 1968b; Waters 196; Welch 1848 (general); Wood & Davies 1966; Weber 1987; Wood et al. 1979.
As with aquatic specimens, insects and mites that live on or under the soil surface require special techniques and equipment for their collection and study. Many soilinhabiting species are of great economic importance because they devour the roots of crops. Many spend their immature stages in soil but emerge and leave the soil as adults. A considerable amount of literature on soil insects has been published, the most useful of which is cited here. See also the references cited under Separators and Extractors (p. 9) and Pitfall and Dish Traps (p. 12)
References: Barnes 1941; Briggs 1971; Brindle 1963; Dethier 1955; Fessenden 1949; Kevan 1955, 1962; Kuhnelt et al. 1976; Lane & Anderson 1976; MacFayden 1962; Murphy 1962; Newell 1955; Paquin and Coderre 1996; Salt & Hollick 1944; Teskey 1962.
Some ectoparasites, particularly those that fly, may be collected in some of the traps discussed,using their hosts as bait; others may be collected by means of the special devices described in the following references.
References: British Museum 1974 (p. 152), Comstock 1940; Watson & Amerson 1967; Williamson 1954.