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Races of Maize Permissions
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About The Races of Maize Collection

Table of Contents

 

Introduction
Acknowledgments
Document Title and Authorizing Authority
Restrictions
Hardware and Software Used
Races of Maize Scanning Protocol
References
Link to ARS-GRIN for maize images

Introduction

 

The core set of the Races of Maize volumes were a result of investigations by Maize Geneticists and were published by the National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences between 1952 and 1963. The set represents a unique source of information, which characterizes and describes the races of maize and their respective geographic origins. These volumes have been out of print and unavailable to researchers for decades. The Maize Crop Germplasm Committee (CGC) recognized the importance of the availability of this scientific literature and recommended that they be electronically reproduced and distributed via the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

In addition to the core set of volumes, numerous publications on the races of maize sponsored by various national and international authorities have been included. The project reflects the global importance of maize germplasm and the collective body of work of the international maize research community. This effort was funded in part with funds from the Latin America Maize Project (LAMP) held by USDA-ARS, and by resources of the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), Ames, IA, and the National Center for Germplasm Resource Preservation (NCGRP), Ft. Collins, CO.

Acknowledgments

 

Thanks to all who contributed to this project:

  • The Researchers and Authors of these volumes describing the races of maize, and for dedicating their life’s energy and expertise to this important and timeless work. Thanks also go to the copyright-holders for granting access to these volumes. See authorization section for complete listing.
  • Wilfredo Salhuana, who has spent a lifetime studying and promoting the use of maize germplasm, and who served as Director of the Latin American Maize Project (LAMP) Project and Chairman of the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM). Wilfredo worked tirelessly to secure the author’s permissions and to provide impetus for completion of this project.
  • The Maize Geneticists whose body of work resulted in the original volumes.
  • The Maize Crop Germplasm Committee for making this project a priority, thus ensuring the availability of the Races of Maize series to future maize researchers.
  • Henry Shands, USDA-ARS-NCGRP, Ft. Collins, CO for providing the funds for the scanning equipment and valuable advice, for securing the permission and encouragement of the National Academy of Science to make the Races volumes available digitally, and the impetus for completing this project.
  • Mark Millard, NCRPIS Maize Curator, Iowa State University, Ames, IA for his maize curatorial expertise and contributions to the quality of the project.
  • Candice Gardner, USDA-ARS-NCRPIS Research Leader and NC-7 Project Coordinator for her support.
  • Kyle Cavanaugh, USDA-ARS Archival Intern of The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA, for his design, development, and scanning document capture contributions to this project.
  • Jaryd Sunstrom, USDA-ARS IT Intern of the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA, for his assistance in design layout and programming development on this project.
  • Cris Nass, USDA-ARS-NCRPIS Office Automation Assistant of the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA, for document scanning and capture assistance.
  • Peter Cyr, USDA-ARS-NCRPIS IT Specialist of the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, IA, for final project execution.

Document Title and Authorizing Authority

 

The collaboration of the following institutions and persons that gave permission to digitally publish the volumes of Races of Maize and other publications in the CD’s for distribution at no cost and inclusion in PDF format on public web sites is greatly appreciated. Permission was given exclusively for this purpose with no reproduction for sales.

Year

Title

Authors

Publication

Publisher

Authorization/(Footnote)

1946

Races of Maize in South America

Cutler, H. C., J. T. A. Gurgel, E. Paterniani, A. Blumenschein and M.M.R. Alleoni

Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Uni. 12:257-292

Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Uni. 12:257-292

Judith A. Warnement (Economic Botany Library of Oakes Ames, Harvard Univ.) (2)

1951

Razas de Maíz en México, su origen, características y distribución

Wellhausen, E.J., L.M. Roberts, E. Hernández X, and P.C. Mangelsdorf

Folleto Tecnico No. 5 Oficina de Studios Especiales, Sec. de Agric. Y Ganderia, Mexico

Ministerio de Agricultura, Mexico

Dr. Víctor Villalobos (Min. of Agriculture, Mexico) (3)

1952

Races of Maize in México: Their Origin, Characteristics and Distribution

Wellhausen, E.J., L.M. Roberts, E. Hernández X, and P.C. Mangelsdorf

 

The Bussey Institute of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

Judith A. Warnement (Economic Botany Library of Oakes Ames, Harvard Univ.) (2)

1954

News Report NSRC Vol IV, Number 5

 

 

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1957

Races of Maize in Cuba

Hatheway, W. H.

 Pub: 453

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1957

Races of Maize in Colombia

Roberts, L.M., U.J. Grant, R. Ramírez E, W.H. Hatheway, D.L. Smith, and P.C. Mangelsdorf

 Pub: 510

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1957

Races of Maize in Central America

Wellhausen, E.J. , A. Fuentes O,  A. Hernández C,  and P.C. Mangelsdorf

 Pub: 511

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1958

Races of maize in Brazil and other Eastern South American Countries

Brieger, F G., J.T.A. Gurgel, E. Paterniani, A. Blumenschein and M.M.R. Alleoni

 Pub. 593

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dr. Ernesto Paterniani & Dr. Alimiro Blumenschein (1)

1960

Races of Maize in the West Indies

Brown, W.L.

 Pub. 792

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1960

Races of Maize in Bolivia

Ramírez, E.R., D.H.Timothy, E., E. Diaz B., U.J. Grant , N. Calle,  E.G. Anderson and W.L. Brown

 Pub: 747

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1961

Races of Maize in Perú. Their origins, evolution and classification

Grobman, A., W. Salhuana, R. Sevilla, P.C. Mangelsdorf

 Pub: 915

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D

Dr. Alexander Grobman, Dr. Wilfredo Salhuana, Ing. Ricardo Sevilla & Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1961

Races of Maize in Chile

Timothy, D.H., B. Peña V, R. Ramirez E, W.L. Brown and E.G. Anderson

 Pub: 847

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1962

Razas de Maiz en España

Sanchez-Monge, E.

 Ministerio de Agricultura Madrid

 Ministerio de Agricultura Madrid Graficas Uquina

Dr. Enrique Sanchez-Monge  c/o Dr. Luis Sevilla (10)

1963

Races of Maize in Venezuela

Grant, U.J., W.H. Hatheway, D., D.H. Timothy, C.C. Cassalett D., and L.M. Roberts

 Pub:1136

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1963

Races of Maize in Ecuador

Timothy, D.H., W.H. Hatheway, U.J. Grant, M. Torregroza C., D. Sarria and D. Varela A.

 Pub: 975

 NAS-NRC, Washington, D. C.

Dick Morris (NA Press, Washington) (1)

1965

Chromosome Morphology of Certain Races of Maize in Latin America

Longley, A.E. and T.A. Kato

 

 International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat. Chapingo, Mexico

Dr. Masaru Iwanaga (CIMMYT) (4)

1971

Races of Maize of Portugal

Costa-Rodrigues, L.

 

 Agronomia Lusit:31: 239-284

Dr. Fernando Ilharco (Agronomia Lusitana) (5)

1977

Races of Maize in Brazil and adjacent areas

Paterniani, E. and M.M. Goodman

 

 CIMMYT, México D. F.

Dr. Ernesto Paterniani & Dr. Masaru Iwanaga (CIMMYT) (4)

1977

Races of Maize in India

Singh, E.

 

 

National Bureau of Plant Genectic Resources, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (12)

1979

Collection and characteristics of Races of Maize in Japan

Shiga, T., N. Mochizuki and M. Yamada

NIAS Misc. Series D, No. 3

National Institute of Agricultural Sciences.  Tokyo, Japan.

Dr. T. Shiga & Dr. M. Yamada (Tsukuba) (11)

1988

Races of Corn

Goodman, M.M. and W.L. Brown

Corn and Corn Improvement pp:33-79 in G.F. Sprague and J. W. Dudley

ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Publisher Madison, Wisconsin, USA

Dr. M.M. Goodman & Dave Kral (ASA) (9)

1989

Races and Populations of Maize in Yugoslavia

Geric, I., M. Zlokolica, C. Geriv, and C.W. Stuber

IBPGR, Rome

IBPGR, Rome

Dr. Jeremy Cherfas (IPGRI-Rome) (6)

1990

I Mais Boliviani

Gonzalo, A. and A.G. Brandolini

Istituto Agronomico per l'ol Tremare.

 Istituto Agronomico per L’Oltremare (IAO) Firenze

Dr. Gonzalo Avila & Dr. Alice Perlini (Istituto Agronomico per L'Oltremare, Florence, Italy) (7)

1990

Catálogo de Recursos Genéticos de Maíz de Chile

Orlando Paratori, O. and R. Sbarbaro

 

Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA)

Dr. Paulina Sepulveda Director Regional del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) de Chile (14)

1997

Catálogo de Germoplasma de Maíz-Argentina

Solari, L.

 Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)/Istituto Agronomico per l’Oltramare (IAO)

 Istituto Agronomico per L’Oltremare (IAO) Firenze

Secretari Tecnica   INTA Pergamino  Ing. Agr. Lucio Solari,  Guemes 4227 6 piso, depto"A",  Capital Federal Republica Argentina.  CP 1425 & Dr. Alice Perlini (Istituto Agronomico per L'Oltremare, Florence, Italy) (7)

1998

Catalogo de Recursos Geneticos de Maices Bolivianos

Gonzalo, A. and L. Guzman

 

Centro de Investigaciones Fitoecogeneticas de Pairumani, Cochabamba, Bolivia

Dr. Gonzalo Avila (13)

1999

Races of Maize in Paraguay

Salhuana, W. and V. Machado

PUB 025

 ARS-USDA, Paraguayan Ministry of Agriculture

Dr. Wilfredo Salhuana  & Ing. Veronica Machado (8)

2003

Diversidad y descripción de las razas de maíz en el Perú

Salhuana, W.

Programa Cooperativo de Investigaciones en Maíz (PCIM), Logros y Perspectivas, 50th Aniversario

Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

Dr. Wilfredo Salhuana

 

ACCESS TO ALL THE MATERIALS CONTAINED IN THIS DIGITAL COMPENDENDIUM OF THE RACES OF MAIZE HAS BEEN PROVIDED FREE OF CHARGE.  FURTHER USE OF THIS MATERIAL IS ENCOURAGED, WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT PROPER CITATIONS AND CREDIT ARE DUE THE AUTHORS OF THESE VOLUMES AND THE COPYRIGHTING INSTITUTIONS.

1) Copyright is held by the National Academy Press, USA, for the following volumes.
    The National Academy Press has provided access free of charge.
            Races of Maize in Cuba (Publication # 453)
            Races of Maize in Colombia (Publication 510)
            Races of Maize in Central America (Publication 511)
            Races of Maize in Brazil and other Eastern South American Countries (Publication # 593)
            Races of Maize in the West Indies (Publication # 792)
            Races of Maize in Bolivia (Publication # 747)
            Races of Maize in Peru (Publication # 915)
            Races of Maize in Chile (Publication # 847)
            Races of Maize in Venezuela (Publication # 1136)
            Races of Maize in Ecuador (Publication 975)
 2) Copyrights are held for the Races of Maize in South America and the Races of Maize in Mexico: Their Origin, Characteristics and
     Distribution (1952) by Harvard University.  The Economic Botany Library of Oakes Ames, Harvard University, has permitted access and
     their inclusion in this digital project free of charge.
 3) Copyright for the Razas de Maiz en México is held by the Mexican government. Dr, V,N, Villa lobos Arambula, on behalf of the
     Mexican Ministry of Agriculture has provided access free of charge.
 4) Copyrights for the volumes Chromosome Morphology of Certain Races of Maize in Latin America and Races of Maize in Brazil and
     Adjacent Areas are held by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico.  CIMMYT has provided document
     access free of charge.
 5) Copyright for the Races of Maize of Portugal is held by the Society Agronomia Lusitana.  The Society has provided access free of charge.
 6) Copyright for the Races and Populations of Maize in Yugoslavia is held by the International Plant Genetics Resources Institute
     (IPGRI), formerly the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources  (IBPGR); has provided access to the document free of charge.
 7) Copyrights for the I Mais Boliviani and the Catálogo de Recursos Genéticos de Maiz de Argentina are held by the Instituto Agronomico
     per L’Oltremare (IAO) Firenze.  IAO has provided the document free of charge.
 8) Copyright for the Races of Maize in Paraguay is shared by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and the Ministry of Agriculture of Paraguay;
     they have provided the document free of charge.
 9) Copyright for the Races of Corn by Goodman & Brown is held by the ASA/CSSA/SSA; Dr. Goodman and the ASA have granted access
     free of charge.
10) Permission for use of Dr. Enrique Sanchez-Monge’s volume, the Razas de Maiz en España, was provided by the Ministerio de Agricultura
      Madrid and Dr. Sanchez-Monge, at no cost.
11) Copyright for the Collection and Characteristics of Races of Maize in Japan is held by the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences
      (NIAS), Tokyo, Japan..  Drs. M. Yamada Minoru and T. Shiga have authorized use of the volume for this project and provided
      access free of charge.
 12) Copyright for the Races of Maize in India is held by the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Indian Council of Agricultural
      Research.  Dr. B.S. Dhillon has authorized access on behalf of the organization free of charge, as has Dr. S.N. Shukla.
 13) Permission for use Catálogo de Recursos Genéticos de Maices Bolivianos was provided by the Centro de Investigaciones
      Fitoecogéneticas de Pairumani, Cochabamba, Bolivia and Dr. Gonzalo Avila, at not cost.
14) Permission for use Catálogo de Recursos Genéticos de Maiz de Chile was provided by the Instituto de Investigaciones
      Agropecuarias (INIA) and Dr. Paulina Sepulveda, free of charge.

Restrictions

 

All rights reserved. No part of these books may be reproduced in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Hardware and Software Used

 

In order to view the PDF documents, download Adobe Acrobat Reader here.

Races of Maize Scanning Protocol

 

Settings for Adobe Capture 3.0

- Page-size:  Letter

- Brightness:  72%

- Contrast:  60%

- Single/Double-sided Documents:  Double

- Color Format:  Grayscale (256)  

- Resolution:  300 DPI

Naming (Manual):

RoM_country_publication_date.pdf where Races of Maize in Venezuela would be "RoM_Venezuela_1136_2002-04-05.pdf"

Document Info:

            Title = Name of book

            Author = Name of person who converted the document

Export to PDF step properties in the OCR workflow:

Page content = Searchable Image (Exact) – two layers 1) top layer is the image of the document and 2) the bottom layer is the text in the document

            Paper Size = Dynamic

            Advanced: Embed Fonts

                            Enable Links

                            Enable Logical Page Numbering

                            Enable Structure

Store File (PDF) step stores the file in a location of your choosing

-          Select Properties and browse for a folder to store the completed PDF document  

Pre-OCR step

The Kodak 1500D scanner does not scan with the custom settings in Adobe Capture 3.0. The workaround for this issue is to scan at letter size and then open each tiff file in Adobe Photoshop and crop the black borders away so as to decrease image size.  (The cropping tool in Adobe Acrobat 5.0 does not remove the cropped area, it simply hides it from view without decreasing the file size.)

Maize Book Scanning Steps: 

1)       Set up Adobe Capture settings. 

a.       In the OCR workflow, verify that all settings are correct. (Configure tab)

b.       Check the “Run” box. 

2)       Scan Tab.

a.       Verify that all settings are correct.

b.       Select “Send Tiff to Folder” and select a folder by browsing for a path (I find that it is easiest to create a new folder for every book).

c.       Name the File according to the above naming structure.  (you may have to toggle between Auto and Manual)

Use the One document per feeder load setting for the number of pages to scan

d.       Verify that the document will “start at the front of the document”

e.       Click on SCAN.

3)       The Kodak 1500D is a duplex scanner, so both sides of the book will be scanned at once.  Run the document through and each image will be scanned and named according to the page number and the side. (i.e. 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b)

Now the .tif images of every page in the book have been scanned and stored in the folder selected in step 2b. 

4)       Pre-OCR Step

a.       Open all scanned imaged in Adobe Photoshop and crop the black borders and touch up the images with the eraser tool. 

b.       Save the files and close

5)       Submit Tiff images to workflow.

a.       In the Submit tab in Capture, navigate to the folder in which the .tif images from step 2b was stored. Check the box next to the folder.

b.       Select the images from the folder to be included in the file.  (Tip:  Use the “Treat files in the same folder as one document” option)

c.       Click on Submit To Workflow.

6)       The OCR workflow will run through the following steps:

a.       Capture Image – this is the OCR recognition step

                                                               i.      Automatically de-skews image

                                                             ii.      Outputs an ACP file (Adobe Capture Page)

b.       QuickFix Page – Here the user manually corrects any mistakes that the OCR made or is unsure of

                                                               i.      Verify or correct the suggested word based on the image of the word.

                                                             ii.      Commit the page and open the next after the page is done. F4 commits and opens the next page.

c.       Bind Pages – reassembles the multi-page document from one-page files that are the output of the Capture Image step.  Outputs the ACD file. (Adobe Capture Document)

d.       Export to PDF – Converts the ACD file to PDF – this step converts the file to a Searchable Image (Exact) file

e.       Store File (PDF) – Stores the PDF file in a location specified in the properties of the Store File (PDF) step

7)       Open the Stored PDF in Adobe Acrobat 5.0

a.       Crop document to clean up appearance (if needed)

b.       Set the starting page to the first page that is not scanned in color (page 3). This will result in a faster load time for the document.

                                                               i.      File / Document Properties / Open Options

c.       Apply Security

                                                               i.      File / Document Security

                                                             ii.      Select Adobe Standard Security

                                                            iii.      Encryption level 128 bit RC4 (Acrobat 5.x)

                                                            iv.      Check the following boxes:

1.       “Password required to change permissions and password”

2.       Changes allowed = None

3.       Printing = Fully allowed

4.       Enable Content Access for Visually Impaired

                                                              v.      Close  

d.       Save File

 

References

 

  • 2nd Laboratory of Genetics, Division of Genetics, Department of Physiology and Genetics.  1979.  Collection and characteristics of Races of Maize in Japan.  National Institute of Agricultural Sciences.  Tokyo, Japan.
     
  • Avila, G. and A. G. Brandolini.  1990.  I Mais Boliviani.  Istituto Agronomico per l'ol Tremare.  Firenze, Italy.
     
  • Brieger, F.G., J.T.A. Gurgel, E. Paterniani, A. Blumenschein and M.R. Alleoni. 1958. Races of Maize in Brazil and other eastern South American countries. Pub. 593. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • Brown, W. L. 1960. Races of Maize in the West Indies . Pub. 792. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • Costa Rodrigues L. 1971. Races of Maize of Portugal . Agronomia lusit:31: 239-284.
     
  • Cristea, M.  1987.  Races of Maize in Romania.  Seed Publications.  Karachi, Pakistan.
     
  • Cristea, M.  1977.  Rasele de Porumb din Romania.  Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania.  Calea Victoriei, Bucuresti.
     
  • Cutler, H. C. 1946. Races of Maize in South America . Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harv. Univ. 12: 257-292.
     
  • Geric, Ivan, Marija Zlokolica, and Cana Geric with Charles W. Stuber.  1989.  Races and Populations of Maize in Yugoslavia.  IBPGR, Rome.
     
  • Goodman, M., and W. L. Brown. 1988. Races of corn. pp. 33-79. In G.F. Sprague and J.W. Dudley (eds.) Corn and corn improvement. 3rd ed. Agron. Monogr. 18. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison WI.
     
  • Grant, U.J., W. H. Hatheway, D. H. Timothy, C. Cassalett D. and L. M. Roberts. 1963. Races of Maize in Venezuela . Pub. 1136. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • Grobman, A., W. Salhuana and R. Sevilla with P. C. Mangelsdorf. 1961. Races of Maize in Perú. Their origins, evolution and classification. Pub. 915. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • Hatheway, W. H. 1957. Races of Maize in Cuba . Pub. 453. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • IAO (ed.). 1997. Catálogo de Germoplasma de Maíz-Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)/Istituto Agronomico per l’Oltramare (IAO). Firenze .
     
  • Longley, Albert E. and Takeo A. Kato. Y.  Chromosome Morphology of Certain Races of Maize in Latin America.  International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat.  Chapingo, State of Mexico, Mexico.  1965.
     
  • Paterniani E. and M. M. Goodman. 1977. Races of Maize in Brazil and adjacent areas. CIMMYT, México D.F.
     
  • Ramírez, E. R., D. H. Timothy, E. Diaz B. and U. J. Grant with G.E. Nicholson Calle, Edgar Anderson and W.L. Brown. 1960. Races of Maize in Bolivia . Pub. 747. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • Roberts, L.M., U.J. Grant, R. Ramírez E., W.H. Hatheway, and D.L. Smith, with P.C. Mangelsdorf. 1957. Races of Maize in Colombia . Pub. 510. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • Salhuana, W., and V. Machado. 1999. Races of Maize in Paraguay . ARS/USDA and Maize Program of Paraguay. Special Publication.
     
  • Salhuana, W.S. 2003. Diversidad y descripción de las razas de maíz en el Perú . pp. 204-251. In W, Salhuana, A. Valdez, F. Scheuch y J. Davelouis (eds.), Programa Cooperativo de Investigaciones en Maíz (PCIM), Logros y Perspectivas, 50th Aniversario . Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.
     
  • Sanchez-Monge Enrique. 1962. Razas de Maiz en España. Ministerio de Agricultura Madrid . Graficas Uquina.
     
  • Singh E. . 1977. Races of Maize in India . Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New Delhi
     
  • Timothy, D. H., B. Peña V. and R. Ramirez E., with W. L. Brown and E. Anderson . 1961. Races of Maize in Chile . Pub. 847. NAS-NRC , Washington .
     
  • Timothy, D. H., W. H. Hatheway, U. J. Grant, M. Torregroza C., D. Sarria and D. Varela A. 1963. Races of Maize in Ecuador . Pub. 975. NAS-NRC , Washington , D.C.
     
  • Wellhausen, E.J., L.M. Roberts, and E. Hernández X., with P.C. Mangelsdorf. 1952. Races of Maize in México. The Bussey Inst., Harvard University , Cambridge , MA .
     
  • Wellhausen, E.J., A. Fuentes O. and A. Hernández C. with P.C. Mangelsdorf. 1957. Races of Maize in Central America . Pub. 511. NAS-NRC , Washington , DC.

 


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