Evaluation and improvement of cereal germplasm for winter hardiness
David Livingston, Research Agronomist
Tan Tuong, Plant Science Research Technician
The focus of my lab is improving the winter hardiness of plants with an
emphasis on discovering why oat is the least hardy winter cereal.
Despite living in a 3D world, researchers are usually limited to 2D observations
of experimental samples. However, we have developed a technique to build
3D volumes of cereal crowns from 2D, pixel-based images using a desktop
computer and off-the-shelf-software. This technique provides information
that is not available with 2D observations.
Fig. 1. 3D video reconstruction of Wintok oat after freezing
This technique allowed us to visualize the freeze-response (a change in
cellular chemistry, colored orange in the video) as a sphere in the center
of the crown. In addition, this freeze response is more
scattered throughout the crown of the non-hardy cultivar. Both cultivars
were frozen at their respective LT50 temperatures.
Fig. 2. Anaglyph (3D) video of frozen wheat plants.
We have also used this technique to image the portal track of normal and
diseased dog livers and to visualize the interface of necrotic and living
tissue in malignant woodchuck tumors.
The technique cannot replace the use of non-invasive optical sectioning
that confers a fourth temporal dimension to imaging such as in Confocal
Laser Scanning Microscopy, MRI, and PET/CT. However, this digital-clearing
technique provides an inexpensive and relatively simple way to construct
pixel-based 3D volumes by viewing actual internal structures without tracing
For more information:
Livingston, D.P., III, T.D. Tuong, S.R.V.Gadi, C.H. Haigler, R.S.
Gelman, J.M. Cullen. 2010. 3D volumes constructed from pixel-based
images by digitally clearing plant and animal tissue. Journal of Microscopy.
Livingston, D.P., III, T.D. Tuong, C.H. Haigler, U. Avci, S.P. Tallury.
2009. Rapid microwave processing of winter cereals for histology
allows identification of separate zones of freezing injury in the crown.
Crop Science 49:1837–1842.
Livingston, DP III, EM. Herman, R Premakumar, SP Tallury. 2007. Using Arabidopsis thalianaas a model to subzero acclimation in small grains. Cryobiology 54:154-163.
Livingston DP, SP Tallury, SA Owens, JD Livingston, R Premakumar. 2006.
Freezing in non-acclimated oats: thermal response and histological observations
of crowns during recovery. Canadian Journal of Botany 84:199-210.
Livingston, DP, SP Tallury, R Premakumar, S Owens and CR
Olien. 2005. Changes in the histology of cold hardened oat crowns during
recovery from freezing. Crop Science 45:1545-1558.