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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Germination Test Methods
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1 - Main area
2 - Amaranth: D. Brenner, Curator
3 - Maize: M. Millard, Curator
4 - Oilseeds: L. Marek, Curator
5 - Ornamentals: M. Widrlechner, Curator
6 - Vegetables: K. Reitsma, Curator
7 - Seed Testing Papers
8 - General & Historic
General & Historic


General Historic Germ Test Method logo


Evaluation Numbers – infrequent or no longer used:
(General, Historic, Special Care)

 


 
 
For additional information click here.
 

 

Historic

ENO:  11

Historic

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.STANDARD

Germinations are performed in a high humidity germinator set at 12 hours 20 degrees centigrade in the dark alternating with 12 hours 30 degrees centigrade in the light. 50 seeds are wrapped in 2 paper towels for each replication. Replications are rubber banded together. 10-20 accessions are placed in plastic tubs with holes in the bottom. Towels are kept moist during germination period. Evaluations are performed at 7 and 10 days.

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Special Care

ENO:  24

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.RESCUE

Seeds are rinsed in 10% bleach and placed on blotters in deep plastic boxes. Separation of seed is 2 cm or more. Fungicides are applied when needed. Boxes are placed in germinator set on alternating 20-30 degrees C and alternating light-dark. When seedling leaves begin emerging from the coleoptile, they are transplanted to 7.6 cm jiffy pots. Soil is added to the pots as the seedlings develop. These jiffy pots are transplanted to large plastic pots when the seedlings are fully established.

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General

ENO:  150

General

NC7.GERMS.C20/30BLOTTERBOX.KNO3

Seeds are germinated on 2 blotter papers moistened with a 0.1% KN03 solution in plastic boxes (5" x 5-1/4"). Temperatures alternate at 30C with light for 12 hours and 20C in darkness for 12 hours per 24 hour cycle.

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Historic

ENO:  180

Historic

NC7.GERMS.BRASSICA.KNO3.ROOM

Germinations are performed at room temperature (~20 degrees C) with 0.2% percent potassium nitrate as the medium. Fifty seeds are put on top of blotters for each replication. The number of germinated, abnormal, and hard seeds are counted at 3 and 7 days after placing on blotters.

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General

ENO:  367

General

NC7.GERMS.C10BLOTTER.BOX

Seeds are germinated on blotters moistened with 0.2% KNO3 water in plastic boxes. The temperature is 10 deg C, the daylength is 12 to 14 hours, for 21 days.

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Special Care

ENO:  399

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.CUPHEA.EXCISED

Seeds are soaked in water overnight or a minimum of four hours. Seed coats are removed. Seeds are placed on two blotters in a germ box. Keep blotters soaked with excess water at all times. Place under 12 hours of light at room temperature. Count germs every seven days for 21 days.

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Historic

ENO:  400

Historic

NC7.GERMS.CUPHEA.NONEXCISED

Seeds are placed on two blotter pads in a germ box. Blotter pads are kept soaked with excess water at all times. Germ box is placed in 12 hours of light at room temperature. Germs are counted every seven days for 21 days.

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Historic

ENO:  404

Historic

NC7.GERMS.CRUCIFERS.STANDARD

Four replicates of fifty seeds are each folded into a double layer of germ toweling moistened with water and placed in a lighted germination chamber ( 16/8 ) at 20 degrees C. Evaluations are performed at 4 and 7 days following I.S.T.A. and A.O.S.A. rules. An optional prechill at 5-10 degrees C for up to 7 days may be used to hasten and unify germination and may be used as test environment.

Additional comments: Crambe: 0.1% potassium nitrate solution is used to initially moisten toweling.

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Historic

ENO:  490012

Historic

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.ISU.COLD

Performed by ISU Seed Lab. Stress condition.

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Historic

ENO:  490013

Historic

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.ISU.WARM

Performed by ISU Seed Lab.

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Historic

ENO:  490383

Historic

NC7.GERMS.DAUCUS.STANDARD

Seeds are placed on top of 2 blue blotter papers and one sheet of pleated paper moistened with tap water (substrate on dry side) in plastic boxes (5" x 5-1/4"). Let sit overnight at room temperature. Transfer to germinator with temperatures alternating between 30 ºC with light for 12 hours and 20 ºC in darkness for 12 hours per 24 hour cycle. Replication and sample size: 4 reps of 50 seed each for a total of 200 seeds. Counts are done 7, 21, and 28 days after start of test.

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Historic

ENO:  490483

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.KPAC.1WKPRECHILL.20/30

No method described except in evaluation name.

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Historic

ENO:  490487

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.TOWELS.DARK.20C

No method described except in evaluation name.

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General

ENO:  490500

General

NC7.GERMS.20C.CONSTANT

Seeds are imbibed with tap water on 2 germination papers in a plastic box (5" x 5-1/4"). Temperature and light regimen is 20 C with fluorescent light per 12 hours per 24 hour cycle, alternating with 20 C in darkness.

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Historic

ENO:  490501

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.1.WEEK.PRECHILL.20C

No method described except in evaluation name.

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Historic

ENO:  490502

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.KPAC.KNO3.20/30C

No method described except in evaluation name.

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Historic

ENO:  490506

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.KNO3.15C.1WKPRECHILL

No method described except in evaluation name.

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Special Care

ENO:  490639

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.MILD.HYDRATION

Seeds are prehumidified 24 hours by placing seeds in accelerated aging tray with seeds above distilled water. Temperature is held at a constant 22C. Lights are on 0800-2200 and off 2200-0800. Seeds are then transferred to a double layer of germination blotter paper with 20 ml of distilled water. From 0800-2200 temperature is 22C and lights are on. From 2200-0800 temperature is 20C and lights are off. Counts are made at 3 day intervals until completion. Note: Accelerated aging trays are transparent polystyrene containers (4 5/16" x 4 5/16" x 1 3/8") that have a wire mesh screen that keeps seeds approximately 5/8" above the bottom of the container. The bottom of the container has a small amount of water added to achieve the high humidity atmosphere.

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Special Care

ENO:  490674

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.LOW.AMOUNT

This method is the same as NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.STANDARD except the quantity and replications are different because there is a low quantity of seed to germinate. The recommended quantity for this method is 4 replications of 10 seeds each. Germinations are performed in a high humidity germinator set at 12 hours 20 degrees centigrade in the dark alternating with 12 hours 30 degrees centigrade in the light. Seeds are wrapped in 2 paper towels for each replication. Replications are rubber banded together. Towels are kept moist during germination period.

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Historic

ENO:  490995

Historic

NC7.GERMS.ASPARAGUS.STANDARD

4 Reps 50 ct ea.; Towels, 8/16 hours lights at 20/30 C.

Asparagus is now curated at NE9, Geneva, NY.

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Special Care

ENO:  491028

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.TRIPSACUM_LONGCOLD

Seeds soaked in a .25% Thiram solution for 10-12 hours, drained and stored in the dark at 35-45 F (~4 C) for 6-8 weeks. They are then placed in a 25/23 germinator with lights 12/12 on/off.

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General

ENO:  491156

General

NC7.GERMS.25C_CONSTANT.LIGHT_12H

Seeds are imbibed with tap water on 2 germination papers in a plastic box (5" x 5-1/4"). Temperature is held constant at 25 C with 12 hours of fluorescent light per 24 hour cycle.

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Historic

ENO:  491200

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.60DAYPRECHILL.20/30

No method described except in evaluation name.

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Historic

ENO:  491297

Historic

NC7.GERMS.LINUM.ND.HISTORICAL

Germination data received from Fargo, ND when crop was transferred. Germination percentage was determined from 100 seeds placed in a 9 cm diameter petri dish on a filter paper wetted with distilled water. The number of germinated seeds were recorded after 72 hours.

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General

ENO:  491369

General

NC7.GERMS.ALL.PT1KNO3.30C14HR.20C10HR

Germinations were conducted utilizing 5" x 5 1/4" x 1 1/4" germination boxes with 2 germination papers in each box. Germ papers were initially wetted with 0.1% KNO3 distilled water solution and the seeds were then evenly distributed on the germ paper. Germ boxes were then placed into germination chambers set at 30 C with fluorescent lights for 14 hrs alternating with 20 C and dark for 10 hrs. Follow up wettings of the germination papers were with distilled water. [Note: 0.1% KNO3 was used to alleviate negative effect of higher concentrations sometimes prescribed. 14 hr / 10 hr cycles were used to more closely simulate temperate zone conditions.]

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Historic

ENO:  491386

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.KNO3.20/30

No method described except in evaluation name.

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Historic

ENO:  491460

Historic

NC7.GERMS.FENNEL

Two replications of 100 seeds each; Towels; Pre-chill ( 4C ) for 7 days; 20/30 dark; 7 and 14 days. Then, light ( 16/8h ); and counts at 21 and 28 days. May continue to germinate up to 6 weeks.

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Occasionally used

ENO:  491489

Occasionally used

NC7.GERMS.CUCUMIS.WILDS

Towels; H20; Pre-chill (7-14d@4C); 10/30C; 7,14 and 21days.

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General

ENO:  491579

General

NC7.GERMS.15/25C.LIGHT_12H

Seeds are imbibed with tap water on 2 germination papers in a plastic box (5" x 5-1/4"). Temperature and light regimen is 25 C with fluorescent light per 12 hours per 24 hour cycle, alternating with 15 C in darkness.

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General

ENO:  491609

General

NC7.GERMS.5DEG.C

Two replications of 100 seeds each; Blotter (TP) moist with 0.1%KNO3; keep in cooler 5 deg. centigrade, counts 7, 14, 21 and 28 days.

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Historic

ENO:  491624

Historic

NC7.GERMS.OCIMUM.DORMANCY

Towels; 0.1% KNO3; 16/8 light; 20/30C; 7 and 14 days. If no response after 10 days high temp. is moved up to 32C. *With proper alternating temperature regimen light is not an absolute requirement. (Method from previous technician; moved from standard method, which was set back to original standard eval description.)

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Historic

ENO:  491849

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.15MINUTESH2SO4.TOWEL.DARK

No method described except in evaluation name.

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General

ENO:  491857

General

NC7.GERMS.MAIZE.ROOM

Germinations are performed at room tempurature close to 25 C. 50 seeds are wrapped in 2 paper towels for each replication. Replications are rubber banded together. 10-20 accessions are placed in plastic tubs without holes in the bottom. Towels are kept moist during germination period. Evaluations are performed at 7 and 10 days.

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Historic

ENO:  491878

Historic

NC7.GERMS.UMBELS.DORM.TAP

Two replications of 100 seeds each, or 4 replications of 50 seeds each; Blotter (TP); Pre-chill (4C) 7 days; 20/30 dark with counts 7 and 14 days; then 16/8hrs lights, 20/30 C with counts 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Additional comments: The initial dark environment can be ignored for those species with a known light requirement; which are numerous in this family. Chaerophyllum and Eryngium can take up to two months to fully germinate (Chaerophyllum will not usually germinate until at least 4 weeks). (Method from previous technician; moved from standard method, which was set back to original standard eval description.) Use only tap water (changed from KNO3 in 2002) add tap water when dry. Use the 20/30 germinator with light/dark in most cases. In cases where two seeds are attached together, esp. in Coriandrum, the seeds should be separated, seeds that crumble (because they are undeveloped) are not counted and are excluded from the germination sample of 200 non-crumbling seeds.

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Historic

ENO:  492108

Historic

NC7.GERMS.CRAMBE

BLOTTERS, KNO3 AT 20C. COUNTS ON DAYS 4 AND 7.

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Historic

ENO:  492293

Historic

NC7.GERMS.CORIANDRUM

4 Reps of 50 seed/rep. Total of 200 seed. 2 sheets of paper toweling wetted with water. Constant 15C germinator with 12h light/12h dark. Counts on day 6 and 21.

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Occasionally used

ENO:  492308

Occasionally used

NC7.GERMS.CORONILLA./.SECURIGERA

BLOTTER BOXES WITH WATER. EXCESSIVE MOISTURE(VERY WET). 20C CONSTANT WITH 12hr DARK/12hr LIGHT. 1ST COUNT DAY 7 2ND AND FINAL COUNT DAY 14.

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Historic

ENO:  492423

Historic

NC7.GERMS.MELILOTUS

TAP WATER, BLOTTER BOXES, 4 REPS, 50 SEEDS/REP. 20C CONSTANT WITH 12d/12L

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Special Care

ENO:  492426

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.CHORISPORA

0.1% KNO3 2 BLOTTERS IN BLOTTER BOXES. 200 SEED, 50 SEED/REP. SCARIFY SEED WITH 150 GRIT SANDPAPER ON RUBBING BOARD. 20C CONSTANT 24H DARK.

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Historic

ENO:  492450

Historic

NC7.GERMS.SETARIA.15/25

Blotter boxes with water. Germinator is set at 15/25 12 hours dark/12 hours light. Counts on day 7 and day 21.

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Special Care

ENO:  492558

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.HORT.CHIP.BLOTTER.20C.DARK

200 SEED TOTAL. 4 REPS, 50 SEED/REP. ALL SEEDS ARE CHIPPED WITH A STRAIGHT EDGE RAZOR BLADE. SEEDS ARE THEN PLACED IN A BLOTTER BOX WITH 2 BLUE BLOTTERS AND ONE WHITE BLOTTER MOISTENED WITH WATER. BOXES WERE COVERED WITH A BLACK TRASH BAG AND PLACED IN A CABINET. COUNTS ON DAY 7,14 AND 21.

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Historic

ENO:  492566

Historic

NC7.GERMS.FLAX.WILDS.2005

Use two full size germination papers for each germ box. Add 25ml of 3 mM GA3 solution (= 1.038 gm/l or approx. 1 gm GA3 / liter DI water). Put 50 wild flax seeds on germ paper. Put in germination chamber set for: Temperature: 23 C (12 hrs) / 9 C (12 hrs). That is, from 8:00 am to 8:00 pm. Lights: On (11.5 hrs) / Off (12.5 hrs). That is, from 8:30 am to 8:00 pm. GA3 treatment should last 48 hrs. Then, transfer seeds to new germ paper wetted with tap or DI water. Keep germ boxes in the 23/9 C regimen as described above for entire germ test. Recommend counts be taken at 10 da, 14 da, and 21 da.

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General

ENO:  492572

General

NC7.GERMS.TZ

Tetrazolium Test.

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Special Care

ENO:  492614

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.ULMUS.EXCISED

ALL SEED IS PLACED BETWEEN TWO MOISTENED BLOTTER PAPERS IN THE DARK, AT ROOM TEMP. FOR 2 TO 3 DAYS. SEEDS THAT DO NOT HAVE RADICLE PROTRUSION AFTER CONDITIONING TREATMENT ARE THEN EXCISED FROM THEIR PERICARP AND SEEDCOAT. SEEDS THAT HAVE RADICLE PROTRUSION ARE NOT EXCISED. ALL SEEDS ARE THEN PLACED ON BLOTTER PAPER AND PLACED IN A 20/30 GERMINATOR WITH 12d/12L UNTIL READY TO COUNT.

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Special Care

ENO:  492640

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.ULMUS.NONEXCISED

200 SEEDS. 4 REPS WITH 50 SEED/REP. BLOTTER BOXES WITH WATER. SET AT ROOM TEMPERATURE OVERNIGHT AND THEN PRECHILL FOR 3 MONTHS AT 4C. TRANSFER TO A 20/30 GERMINATOR WITH 12D/12L. COUNTS ON DAY 7, 14 AND 21.

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General

ENO:  492969

General

NC7.GERMS.HORT.90DAYPRECHILL.20/30

Blotter Boxes. 2 blue blotters and 1 white. Tap water. Place in cold room for 90 days and then transfer to a 20/30 germinator with 12hr. dark/12hr light.

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Historic

ENO:  493010

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HORT.KNO3.15C

No method described except in evaluation name.

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Historic

ENO:  493018

Historic

NC7.GERMS.CRUCIFERS.ERUCA

Four replicates of fifty seeds are each placed onto a double layer of blue germ paper and a single layer of white germ blotters, moistened with water and placed in a lighted germination chamber ( 12/12 ) at 20 degrees C. Evaluations are performed at 7 days only. An optional prechill at 5-10 degrees C for up to 7 days may be used to hasten and unify germination and may be used as test environment.

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General

ENO:  493044

General

NC7.GERMS.5.DAY.COLD.0.1%KNO3BLOTTER.15C

200 SEED, 4 REPS, 50SEED/REP. BLOTTER BOXES. 0.1% KNO3. 5 DAY PRECHILL. 15C CONSTANT. 12D/12L.

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Historic

ENO:  493219

Historic

NC7.GERMS.MONARDA

KNO3, TOP OF BLOTTERS LAYERED 1 BLUE, 1 WHITE, 1 BLUE. 20C/30C, 12D/12L. COUNTS DAY 7 + 28.

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Historic

ENO:  493222

Historic

NC7.GERMS.SETARIA.15/30

BLOTTER BOXES, INBETWEEN BLOTTERS, BLUE, WHITE, SEEDS, BLUE ON TOP. H20. 15C/30C COUNTS ON DAYS 4 AND 10.

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Historic

ENO:  493375

Historic

NC7.GERMS.HYPERICUM.MCCOY

PETRI PLATES, DISTILLED H20, CUT BLOTTERS INTO SMALL SQUARES PLACE 2 BLUE AND 1 WHITE. PLACE SEEDS ON TOP OF WHITE BLOTTER AND PLACE IN 8/20 CELCIUS GERMINATOR 12D/12L. CHECK FOR RADICLE EMERGENCE IN 7 DAYS.

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Occasionally used

ENO:  493525

Occasionally used

NC7.GERMS.CICUTA

BLOTTER BOXES. 1BLUE BLOTTER, 1WHITE, 1 BLUE ON TOP. VERY WET BLOTTERS. SEEDS ON TOP OF BLOTTERS. SPRAY LIGHTLY WITH MORE WATER AND SET AT ROOM TEMPERATURE OVERNIGHT. 2 WEEK PRECHILL. PLACE IN GERMINATOR 7C/15C, 12/12 LIGHTING.

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Special Care

ENO:  493603

Special Care

NC7.GERMS.X-RAY

Samples were x-rayed. Seeds that were filled are considered normal and empty seeds are considered abnormal.

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Last Modified: 3/8/2012
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